Improvement of carbonaceous vaporizers emanation stock from fossil fuel burning at European, National and Provincial sca.

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household diesel (- ), trafic diesel (- ), lignite (- ) 4). EF controlled ... street diesel (pass auto ~ trucks ~ transports) High effect on street gas (pass autos < 2 ...
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Advancement of carbonaceous pressurized canned products outflow stock from fossil fuel burning at European, National and Regional scales by Bruno GUILLAUME and Cathy Liousse (Laboratoire d\'Aérologie)

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Outline 1). To Develop another european discharge stock (EI) for BC and OCp (NEWEUR), to enhance comprehension of the biggest contrasts in the current EI (and there are !) 2). To just relate these distinctions to the source/fuel sorts and emittive districts 3). To think about model/estimations BC focuses acquired with NEWEUR and existing EI independently presented in TM4 model

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HOW MUCH DO FOSSIL FUELS + BIO FUELS CONTRIBUTE IN EUROPE TO BC ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS ? BC (ff+bf) J&L (2006) EVOLUTIVE EF BC (agric. waste smoldering) BC (boreal flames) BC (tropical flames) 0 200 500 2500 10000 40000 100000 150000 tons/yr/3°x2°

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DERIVING THE EMISSIONS OF BC AND OCp substantial split of advances immature outflow controls semi created Pros 1). « »-subordinate : representing both « TECHNOLOGY » and « TECHNOLOGY USAGE » 2). Decision of EF in light of genuine estimations of EF(BC) and EF(OCp) «  innovation based  » with a substantial assorted qualities of advances Cons 1). A great deal of techno however insufficient estimations 2). Decision of EF(BC) and EF(OCp) in light of EF(PM) and evaluations of submicronic, BC/PM and OCp/PM portions EF not representing standards after 1990 in Cooke et al. (1999) Now revised in Junker and Liousse (2006) Particularly substantial contrasts in Europe (Schaap et al., 2004), an area where emanations are regularly expected to be somewhat controlled [Cooke et al, 1999; Junker&Liousse, 2006] or [Bond et al., 2004] ? Cooke et al, J&L Bond et al Fuel-And action subordinate emanations Large contrasts at worldwide scale

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OBJECTIVE HERE : IMPROVING J&L\'s BC AND OCp INVENTORIES IN EUROPE (Guillaume&Liousse, 2006, in prep.) Replacement of « based » approach by « technology-based » approach in Europe, expecting: TECHNOLOGY USAGE less basic parameter in Europe than in creating nations MAJOR CHANGES in EF versus Cooke et al. (1999) in local diesel (- ), trafic diesel (- ), lignite (- ) 3). For different innovations in NEWEUR, EF got from : EF values for REF innovation variations of CO/CO2 generally to REF estimation of CO/CO2 « CO/CO2 method » : CO/CO2, as a marker of ignition fulfillment High effect on EF(BC, OCp) for biofuels (chimneys > stoves), for modern coal,lignite (fbc<pc<grate) BUT Low effect on coal emanations (pc is real supporter) Low effect on street diesel (pass auto ~ trucks ~ transports) High effect on street gas (pass autos < 2-strokes) 4). EF controlled got from: EF uncontrolled abattement components (IIASA) (fuel & tech subordinate) Very huge effect on street diesel (Euro standards) NEWEUR 1). Utilization of IIASA fuel-utilization dataset (Klimont et al., 2002) for a considerable length of time 1990,1995,2000,2005 and 2010 (point by point by controlled/uncontrolled portions) 2). Decision of EF(BC, OCp): for some uncontrolled tech. (REF innovations) EF are taken equivalent to J&L\'s EF for semi-dev nations: i). Δ EF(BC) connected to Δ (CO/CO2): the more finish the burning (low CO/CO2), the lower EF(BC) ii). Δ (BC/OCp) connected to Δ ( CO/CO2): the more finish the ignition, the higher BC/OCp.

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RESULTING EF NEWEUR versus Bond: Main contrasts in coal EF (dom, indus) and lignite

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SPATIALIZED BC EMISSIONS COMPARED TO EXISTING INVENTORIES – YEAR 1995 BC discharges by NEWEUR (no control situation) BC emanations by J&L (2006) (EF 1990) BC outflows by NEWEUR (with controls situation) BC emanations by Schaap et al. (2004) BC outflows by J&L (2006) (EVOLVING EF) 0 200 500 2500 10000 40000 100000 150000 tons/yr/3°x2°

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FOCUSING ON FUEL/SECTOR TYPE… Germany – 5.5 Gg/yr Germany – 7.2 Gg/yr Poland – 5.9 Gg/yr Poland – 10.2 Gg/yr Germany – 19.4 Gg/yr Germany – 2.5 Gg/yr Poland – 53 Gg/yr Poland – 98 Gg/yr Industrial part Domestic segment Combined area (portable sources) In Schaap et al. (2004) stock 260 Gg/yr 90 Gg/yr 86 Gg/yr In NEWEUR stock 1). Under 20% DIFFERENCES IN EU-COUNTRIES (in concurrence with Kuppiainen and Klimont, 2006) 2). half (DOM.) - 80%(INDUS.) DUE TO UNCERTAINTIES ON POLAND VALUES URGENT NEED FOR BETTER EF VALUES FOR COAL/LIGNITE (DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL) !! 300 Gg/yr 190 Gg/yr 220 Gg/yr

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ROAD TRAFFIC: STRONG VARIATIONS AT REGIONAL SCALE ? Degradate at 25kmx25km 61 Gg/yr kt/a/10kmx10km kt/a/25kmx25km kt/a/10kmx10km kt/a/1kmx1km 30 0.3 12 0.1 12 6 0.06 6 4 0.04 4 0.03 3 2 0.02 1.5 0.015 1.5 60 Gg/yr 1 0.01 1 0.4 0.004 0.4 European France 25kmx25km 0.1 0.001 0.1 0.00025 0.025 0.005 0.00005 0.002 0.00002 0.002 0 Similar outflows, better spatialisation 2.7 Gg/yr 3.6 Gg/yr Escompte zoom at 10kmx10km Better spatialisation + Total emanations expanded (20% more) Road commitment expanded from 48% to 58% + Importance of sea discharges Improved BC street discharges in Marseille area - enhanced area (Escompte program 1999-2001) 1kmx1km (because of AASQA Airmaraix - LPCA) Improved BC street emanations for France (10kmx10km) by enhanced area (SNAP3) from CETE (enhanced vehicle means parkway, urban, provincial driving) 60 Gg/yr Guillaume and Liousse (2006b), submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

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CAPEDB database system

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USE OF A GLOBAL BC MODEL TO TEST NEWEUR AGAINST EXISTING INVENTORIESs Use is made of TM4-tracer = tracer adaptation of ORISAM-TM4 model ( Guillaume et al., Tellus B,2006): - worldwide tracer model (300x200km determination), - long combinations, - 9 vertical levels (up to 40hPa), dry dep (Ganzeveld, 1997), wet dep: convective downpours (Guelle, 1995)/stratiform downpours (incloud and underneath cloud), BC maturing (Cooke et al., 1999). ORISAM-TM4 GLOBAL (300x200km, long incorporations )

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MODEL APT TO REPRODUCE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF BC CONCENTRATIONS Pic du Midi (avril 2002-août 2003) EC/OC Campaign (july 2002-july 2003) (see next talk by D. Simpson) Guillaume et al. (2006b), submitted to Geophys.Res.Lett. Photograph des filtres: août 2002 à dec 2003

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OC MORE PROBLEMATIC : MODEL ORISAM-TM4 SHOWS THE INTEREST OF Modeling SOA IN OC Pic du Midi (April 2002-August 2003) Guillaume et al. (2006c), submitted to Geophys.Res.Lett.

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RUNNING SEPARATE BC SIMULATIONS Embedded independently Rest of world = J&L\'s stock 2 diverse European stock: Schaap et al. (2004) (EF taking into account Bond et al.) NEWEUR (with controls)

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EUROPEAN STATIONS TO COMPARE MODELED/MEASURED CONCENTRATIONS Lack of information in the zones where discharges are truly risky ! Hyytiala NEatlantic Aspvreten South Uist Kap Arkona Roervik Mace Head Potsdam Edgbaston Gent Radebeul Halle Gorlitz Melpitz Paris Gif-sur-yvette Vienna K-putsza Landes Forest Po valley Areao Corsica Anadia Barcelona Aveiro Ebro Lisbon

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EUROPEAN STATIONS TO COMPARE MODELED/MEASURED CONCENTRATIONS Western Europe: worldwide demonstrating concurs well Central Europe: better multiplication with NEWEUR Less scattering with provincial model OBSERVATIONS Roervik SCHAAP IN LOTOS SCHAAP Hyytiala NEatlantic Aspvreten South Uist Kap Arkona Mace Head Potsdam Edgbaston Gent Radebeul Halle Gorlitz Melpitz Paris Gif-sur-yvette Vienna K-putsza Landes Forest Po valley Areao Corsica Anadia MOST OF THE DIFFERENCES AT CENTRAL EUROPE SITES, WITH BETTER AGREEMENT USING OUR NEW INVENTORY Barcelona Aveiro Ebro Lisbon

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CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES Combustion chamber (LA, Lannemezan) New measured EF(BC,OCp) soon accessible (Lannemezan, 2007) for coal species (lignite, coal, coke) and peat + further acceptance of the CO/CO2 strategy Irish peat German lignite Uncertainties in European BC outflows produced for the most part by instabilities in Central Europe discharges and owing to coal emanations (residential and mechanical burnings), TM4 recreations show enhanced correlation with NEWEUR in Central Europe (yet absence of information), Regional zooms point to higher territorial uncontrolled divisions of street movement. Requirement for regionalisation of inventories underscored by this study

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BC and OC = essential carbon species in blended pressurized canned products Radiative compelling (IPCC, 2001) BC (neighborhood warming impact) OC (nearby cooling impact) BC and OC = burning tracers, results of fragmented ignition Chemically exceptionally complex species HAP agglomerates, dense natural fonctions, polymerized natural matter) optional OC (SOA) Carbon continuum Condensation proceeds in the environment outflows OCp BC EC

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