Improvement of Direction Sensitive and Large Effective Area Photodetectors .

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Development of Direction Sensitive and Large Effective Area Photodetectors. Andrea Bersani On behalf of the Genova NEMO-ANTARES group . VLV n T NIKHEF, Amsterdam, October 5-8, 2003. Large Volume Neutrino Detectors.
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Advancement of Direction Sensitive and Large Effective Area Photodetectors Andrea Bersani in the interest of the Genova NEMO-ANTARES gather VLV n T NIKHEF, Amsterdam, October 5-8, 2003

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Large Volume Neutrino Detectors For UHE neutrinos is fundamental an expansive (~10 12 t or more) Cherenkov radiator in view of little flux (post ice or ocean) Cost and practicality  low thickness of dynamic components Radioactive and organic foundation  "nearby" and "far" fortuitous events important for commotion dismissal Is it conceivable to decrease the quantity of optical modules (OMs) without influencing productivity? Is it conceivable to enhance the proficiency in recreation of short tracks? We accept both this errands are conceivable.

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Outline To accomplish most extreme data from each OM  numerous bearing delicate dynamic components Light gatherers: Light aides for varieties of PMTs Directionality saving authorities for multianodic photodetectors Hybrid photomultipliers Silicon based Gas based Scintillator based Present and future

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Sense of Sensitive Elements Multiplication Direction touchy and multianodic gadgets have 2 primary elements, one beyond any doubt and one to be examined: Multiple discovery in a solitary OM From an ANTARES group to a solitary OM? In remaking: nearby happenstances rather than P.E. cut Large touchy territory with little TTS if there should arise an occurrence of light aides: a sort of repetition Better affectability to the track position w.r.t. the OM Reconstruction of short track? Recreation of occasions on identifier side?

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R Direction Sensitive Light Collection A PMT can\'t decide approaching photons course This can be accomplished with an appropriate light accumulation framework This can be utilized with a multianodic PMT or with a variety of PMTs

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Light Guide Light guide for an arrangement of four 5"PMTs Simple structure Plexiglas light aides High reflectivity covering Good directionality and 10" powerful equal range PMT bunch Light guide solid model

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Light Collector Light gatherer for multianodic PMT (or HPD) Simple and shabby material (aluminised PETG) Preserves directionality Slightly enhances light gathering proficiency Allow great optical coupling with BS

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Hybrid PMTs The second way: crossover multianodic photomultipliers As huge as would be prudent delicate territory As little as could reasonably be expected travel time spread As much as could be allowed data As basic as could be expected under the circumstances plan" at least 13 Improved Quasar370 outline Sensitive zone division Ok, this is not all that self-evident…

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(What We Know About) Quasar370 was produced for Lake Bajkal Experiment Large touchy zone (14.5"dia.) HV to quicken photoelectrons A second scintillator to reconvert essential photoelectrons into photons A business, little breadth PMT for definite understanding It needs HV (20 to 30 KV) inside the OM TTS can be unequivocally diminished It has a shocking determination

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Features for a Hybrid PMT Take a Quasar370 and: Simplify the geometry Optimize TTS Create a sectioned understanding You get: Spherical front half Improved back half Place for 4 1"PMTs

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Improved Geometry Effects The new outline ensures (at 25KV): More uniform electric field 1to1 correspondence amongst photocathode and scintillator (5mm spot) Extremely uniform travel time (0.9ns FWHM, 6ns normal)

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Hybrid Solutions: Silicon Detectors Also a silicon diode cluster can be utilized to see photoelectrons (in actuality a kind of HPD, see Joram\'s work at CERN) Extremely proficient Highly sectorized Easy to work Easy to be incorporated in a HPMT More in Michele Giunta\'s discussion.

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Hybrid Solutions: Leak Microstructures (i) Photoelectrons can be recognized by a corresponding chamber Copper plate at - 1500V Aluminized Mylar screen at –1500V (remove 1mm) Needles at 0V (stage 1mm) Isobuthane (C 4 H 10 ) gas Fast enhancer in a joint effort with Mariano Lombardi (INFN – LNL, Padova)

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Hybrid Solutions: Leak Microstructures (ii) Many points of interest Extremely modest Extremely safe Easy to work similar flag of a PMT Some inconveniences TTS is not streamlined (10ns FWHM, to be upgraded to under 4ns) Integration in a HPMT is testing 10ns Preliminary Timing Signal

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Hybrid Solutions: Double Photocathode Born as "immediate change" of Quasar370 YAP inorganic scintillator layer 4 Hamamatsu R7899 1" PMTs 12/24V to 20/30KV converter

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Prototype Realization (i) We are building a model Two flanged parts for a few statements (if the first turns sour) Ready for high vacuum Tested for mechanical resistance Annealing framework prepared Ready for dissipation sources establishment

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Prototype Realization (ii) Definition of vanishing methodology in a little glass arch Chromium (electrical support) vanishing  done Bialkali dissipation  prepared for first attempt before the end of October

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Where We Are, Where We Go

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Concluding Remarks We are building up a heading touchy extensive zone light location framework to be incorporated in an optical module taking after two primary ways: Light gathering frameworks for multianodic gadgets or varieties of PMTs Hybrid multianodic PMT in view of Quasar370 This frameworks are good with standard readout electronic This frameworks can give favorable circumstances in recognition and recreation More hits with less OMs Direction data for short tracks Complete working models ought to be prepared before ~ summer 2004

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