Indigenous and Imported Customs in Japan.


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Indigenous and Imported Conventions in Japan. Jeffrey L. Richey, Ph.D. REL 232 Religions of China and Japan Berea School Fall 2004. EARLY JAPAN (4500 BCE-550 CE). Starting points of Japanese individuals: obscure, most likely different, maybe identified with Koreans and Manchurians
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Indigenous and Imported Traditions in Japan Jeffrey L. Richey, Ph.D. REL 232 Religions of China and Japan Berea College Fall 2004

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EARLY JAPAN (4500 BCE-550 CE) Origins of Japanese individuals: obscure, most likely different, maybe identified with Koreans and Manchurians Centralized power and stratified society grew much later in Japan, maybe because of simple access to water Earliest records of Japanese religion portray female shaman-rulers, prophet bone divination, and worry with custom decontamination No early Japanese content free of Chinese impact

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SHINTÔ 神道 Shintã\' = term acquired from Chinese In both Chinese and early Japanese writings, Shintã\' = Popular religion Buddhism Daoism Generic “religion” Until late medieval period (c. 1500s), Shintã\' = Buddhism After 1500s, Shintã\' bit by bit secures current significance: autonomous, indigenous Japanese religion

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300s-600s: Yamato period – Chinese workmanship, dialect, governmental issues, religion (particularly Buddhism), and innovation imported from Korea 710-794: Nara period – bound together majestic standard built up; Buddhism embraced by Nara court; soonest Shintã\' writings ( Kojiki 古事記 [ Record of Ancient Matters], Nihongi 日本記 [ Chronicles of Japan] created 794-1192: Heian period – royal capital moved to Kyoto; Pure Land and Chan (Zen) Buddhism presented 1192-1338: Kamakura period – supreme force overshadowed by tenet of shogun 將軍 (military despot); emotional development for Buddhism 1338-1571: Muromachi ( Ashikaga ) period – declining steadiness of shogun guideline; endemic common war; Portuguese bring Christianity 1571-1868: Tokugawa ( Edo ) period – primitive society under shogun ; abuse of Christianity; notoriety of neo-Confucianism; Shintã\' creates free religious character PRE-MODERN JAPANESE RELIGIOUS HISTORY

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SHINTÔ : KEY CONCEPTS Kami 神: non-human spirits of regular destinations that encapsulate virtue and in addition Japan itself Jinja 神社: holy places at which kami are available Matsuri 祭: celebrations including music, move, supplication to God, sustenance offerings, and devouring; firmly fixing to horticultural seasons Harae 祓: custom purging, for the most part as arrangement for interest in sanctum function

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SHINTÔ VIEWS OF NATURE Japan = unadulterated, great, delightful, and heavenly land brought into being by kami Imperial family = relatives of Amaterasu 天照大 ( sun kami ) Japanese individuals = “children of the kami ” Thus, everything is great seeing that they emerge from kami , however obligated to contamination seeing that they stray from kami

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SHINTÔ VIEWS OF HUMANITY Human nature = initially immaculate (“bright, red heart”) Human life = procedure of continuous amassing of contamination (“dirty, dark heart”) Human objective = immaculateness: outward cleansing of body and group inward refinement of heart ( kokoro 心) Both objectives encouraged by contact with kami at altars, in nature, and so on

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THE SHINTÔ RITUAL YEAR New Year Festival (January 1-15): family sanitization through holy place visits and house-cleaning Spring and Autumn Festivals : occasional ceremonies of decontamination Great Purification (June 30): national custom of filtration performed at every neighborhood holy place Harvest Festival ( November 23-24): offering of first organic products by sovereign at Ise holy place

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SHINTÔ VIEWS OF BUDDHISM No Shintã\' content originates before Buddhism in Japan Nara scholars create hypothesis of honji suijaku 本地重跡 ( unique reality, show follows), whereby bodhisattvas are honji , kami are suijaku By Kamakura period, Shintã\'ists alter hypothesis - kami as honji , bodhisattvas as suijaku Buddhism and Shintã\' remain totally interweaved until Muromachi period By Meiji period (1868-1912), Shintã\' and Buddhism separate

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SHINTÔ VIEWS OF CONFUCIANISM No Shintã\' writings originate before the acquaintance of Confucianism with Japan Early rulers, for example, Prince Shotoku (573-621) construct the Japanese magnificent state in light of Chinese and Korean Confucian models By Tokugawa period, Neo-Confucian believed was extremely alluri

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