Inside the optical systems.

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Conventional Configuration of WDM Systems. Optical speaker sort. 2 noteworthy classes:Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA)conventional SOAGC-SOA (Gain-Clamped SOA)LOA (Linear Optical Amplifier)Fiber Optical speakers (FOA) Rare earth-Doped Fiber AmplifiersErbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) : C, L-BandThulium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (TDFA) : S-BandPraseodymium-Doped Fiber Amplifie
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Inside the optical systems… A more critical look to the intensifiers Part II Hop Ton That

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Traditional Configuration of WDM Systems

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Optical speaker sort 2 noteworthy classes: Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) conventional SOA GC-SOA (Gain-Clamped SOA) LOA (Linear Optical Amplifier) Fiber Optical enhancers (FOA) Rare earth-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) : C, L-Band Thulium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (TDFA) : S-Band Praseodymium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (PDFA) : O-Band

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Other optical intensifier sort Not in light of fortified emanation however on nonlinear impacts Fiber Raman Amplifiers Discrete Raman Amplifiers Distributed Raman Amplifiers (DRA) Hybrid EDFA/Raman Amplifier

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EDFA: Pumping component

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EDFA Configuration Co-spreading pump= lower clamor yet bring down yield control Counter-engendering pump= higher yield control yet higher commotion

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EDFA Noise

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Output versus wavelength Amplification somewhere around 1.53 and 1.56 um.

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Rare earth (Er, Tm, Pr) - Doped Fiber Amplifiers Gain band : Er (C, L-Band), Tm (S-Band), Pr (O-Band) 76 nm (1532-1608 nm) record pick up data transfer capacity in single band setup [M. Yamada et al.,OFC\'98PD]. - Flat pick up: 21 dB, Noise figure: 7 dB - Gain equalizer: two MZ channels with FSR of 32 and 120 nm

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Stimulated Scattering is exchanging vitality from the episode wave to another, scattered wave at lower recurrence (longer wavelength) with the little vitality distinction being discharge as phonons. The occurrence wave can be seen as a pump wave. (Scattered waves are called Stokes waves)

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Stimulated Scattering 2 sorts:- Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) - Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) In WDM frameworks, SBS has no impact

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Distributed Raman Amplifier (DRA) DRA depends on Raman Scattering. A substantial pump is co-propelled at a lower wavelength than the sign to be opened up

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Typical Raman Gain Curve versus Wavelength

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DFA versus DRA

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Hybrid EDF/Raman Amplifier

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Gain data transmission of optical speakers

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Fiber Raman Amplifiers Gain band : 1.3~1.7 um (tunable by pump wavelength) 132 nm record pick up transfer speed in twofold band arrangement has been accomplished [H. Masuda et al., ECOC\'99]. - Combination of Distributed Raman enhancers (DRA) and discrete Raman -Two-pick up band Raman speaker

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Companies working in the optical transport system innovation field. Europe Nokia, Ericsson Telecom, Ericsson Comp., Telia, Sonera, Teledanmark, Lucent Nederlands, BT, Marconi, Nortel Networks(Euro), Siemens, Swisscom, France Telecom, … Italtel, Telecom Italia, Alcatel SEL, Alcatel Italy, Pirelli, Telecom Italia, CSELT, Ukraine, Marconi North America AT&T, Corning, Ciena, EXFO, Elisa, Fujitsu Networks(US), JDS, Lucent(US), Hitachi Telecom(US), Motorola, NEC(US), Nortel, Networks(US, Canada), MCI Worldcom, Sprint, Telcordia, Tycom, Ciena, Cisco Asia China Telecom , China Unicom , CLPAJ, Corning Int. DDI, ETRI, Fujitsu, Hitachi, Huawei Technol ., Japan Telecom, Korea Telecom, KDDI, Mitsubishi, NEC, NTT, Oki, Shanghai Bell , Sumitomo, Sumsung, Toshiba

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Bibliography Télécommunications standard strands optiques: Historical part : streak livelinesss Raman Amplification Design in WDM Systems (IEC Tutorial) exercises/raman Book: Fiber-Optic Communications Technology, course book.

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The end! Much thanks to you for your understanding!

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