Need to know its glow, yet it is troublesome, in light of the fact that separation is obscure If you can evaluate a star\'s breadth and additionally mass, you can make sense of its radiance Then you can likewise discover the separation to this star How to order a star and to place it on the H-R graph effectively??Slide 3
0 The Radii of Stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Betelgeuse Rigel 10,000 times the sun\'s sweep Polaris 100 times the sun\'s range Sun As vast as the sunSlide 4
0 The Relative Sizes of Stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell DiagramSlide 5
How to recognize fundamental succession stars and goliaths? Is there any otherworldly mark of mammoths? The width of otherworldly lines!Slide 6
0 Spectral Lines of Giants Pressure and thickness in the airs of goliaths are lower than in primary succession stars. => Absorption lines in spectra of monsters and supergiants are smaller than in principle arrangement stars => From the line widths, we can gauge the size and in this manner, the radiance of a star. Distance appraise (spectroscopic parallax)Slide 7
Luminosity Classes Ia Bright Supergiants Ia Ib Supergiants II Bright Giants III Giants IV Subgiants IV V Main-Sequence StarsSlide 8
Ia brilliant supergiant Ib Supergiant II splendid mammoth III goliath IV subgiant V principle succession star Luminosity classesSlide 9
Example Luminosity Classes Our Sun: G2 star on the Main Sequence: G2V Polaris: G2 star with Supergiant glow: G2IbSlide 10
Measuring masses Mass is the most vital parameter. Knowing masses of stars would permit us to figure their glows, lifetime and all different properties. In any case, how to gauge masses??Slide 11
Measuring masses Binary Stars More than 50 % of all stars in our Milky Way are not single stars, but rather have a place with parallels: Pairs or various frameworks of stars which circle their normal focal point of mass. On the off chance that we can gauge and comprehend their orbital movement, we can assess the stellar masses.Slide 12
The Center of Mass focal point of mass = adjust purpose of the framework. Both masses level with => focal point of mass is in the center, r A = r B . The more unequal the masses are, the more it movements toward the more gigantic star.Slide 13
Center of Mass (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)Slide 14
m 1 m 2Slide 15
Estimating Stellar Masses Recall Kepler\'s third Law: P y 2 = an AU 3 Valid for the Solar framework: star with 1 sunlight based mass in the middle. We find practically similar law for paired stars with masses M An and M B not quite the same as 1 sun powered mass: an AU 3 ____ M A + M B = P y 2 (M An and M B in units of sun oriented masses)Slide 16
Examples: Estimating Mass Binary framework with time of P = 32 years and partition of a = 16 AU: 16 3 ____ M A + M B = 4 sun based masses. 32 2 Arbitrary units: How to quantify period and partition?Slide 17
Visual Binaries The perfect case: Both stars can be seen specifically, and their partition and relative movement can be taken after straightforwardly.Slide 18
Visual doubles The Castor framework The Sirius framework The two stars are independently obvious in the telescopeSlide 19
Detecting the nearness of a buddy by its gravitational impact on the essential star. Wobbling movement of Sirius ASlide 20
Spectroscopic Binaries Usually, parallel detachment a can not be measured straightforwardly on the grounds that the stars are excessively near each other. Stars are viewed as a solitary point However: 1) their SPECTRA are distinctive, as various fingerprints; 2) Their phantom lines move intermittently due to Doppler impact. This permits us to quantify their orbital speedsSlide 21
The Doppler Effect The light of a moving source is blue/red moved by Dl/l 0 = v r/c l 0 = genuine wavelength discharged by the source Dl = Wavelength change because of Doppler impact v r = outspread speed( along the viewable pathway) Blue Shift (to higher frequencies) Red Shift (to lower frequencies) v rSlide 22
(Observed wavelength - Rest wavelength) Shift z = (Rest wavelength) The Doppler impact: clear change in the wavelength of radiation brought about by the movement of the source Doppler impact:Slide 23
Doppler impact The Doppler impact: evident change in the wavelength of radiation created by the movement of the source RADIAL speed!!Slide 24
The Doppler Effect The Doppler impact permits us to gauge the source\'s spiral speed. Dl/l 0 = v r/c v rSlide 25
Spectroscopic Binaries The drawing closer star produces blue moved lines; the subsiding star produces red moved lines in the range. Doppler move Measurement of spiral speeds Estimate of division a Estimate of massesSlide 26
Spectroscopic pairs Stars are viewed as a solitary point Spectra of both stars are recognizable Sometimes range of one and only star is seenSlide 27
Spectroscopic Binaries (3) Typical grouping of spectra from a spectroscopic parallel framework TimeSlide 28
Determining the orbital periodSlide 29
Measure the orbital period Measure the outspread segment of the orbital speeds Can evaluate the circle size Can decide masses!Slide 30
1. Below is an outspread speed bend for a spectroscopic twofold. Assess the mass of every star if the mass of the double framework is 6 sunlight based masses. M A d A = M B d B V ~ 2 d/PSlide 31
Only the capacity of masses and slant edge can be measuredSlide 33
THE PLANET CANNOT BE SEEN ...BUT MOTIONS OF THE STAR BETRAY ITS PRESENCE !Slide 34
450 km 9 cm/s 150 000 km 30 km/s X 750 000 km 13 m/s JUPITER X 780 000 km 13 km/s EARTHSlide 35
2020 1995 2010 1990 2015 2005 2000 0.002" MOTIONS OF THE SUN VIEWED FROM A STAR 30 LIGHT YEARS AWAY 0.002\'\' IS THE ANGULAR SIZE OF A MAN ON THE MOON OR A STANDARD NEWSPAPER FONT 300 KM AWAY Unobservable!Slide 36
STELLAR WOBBLE RECEDING: REDDER APPROACHING: BLUERSlide 38
Over 100 planets foundSlide 39
EXPECTED: NEARLY CIRCULAR ORBITS BIG PLANETS FAR AWAY FROM THE STAR NO PLANETS BIGGER THAN JUPITER DISCOVERED: STRONGLY ELONGATED ORBITS BIG PLANETS VERY CLOSE TO THE STAR MANY PLANETS BIGGER THAN JUPITERSlide 40
Planetary arrangement of u And 0.85 AU 242 days 2 M J 2.5 AU 3.5 years 4 M J 0.06 AU 4.5 days 0.75 M J 0.73 AU 228 days 1 AU 1 year 0.39 AU 89 days 1.54 AU 1.9 years Solar framework Source: Harvard-Smithsonian CfASlide 41
Habitable zonesSlide 42
Signs of life in the range:Slide 44
The Puzzle of AlgolSlide 45
John Goodricke 1764-1786 Explained Algol bewilder in 1783Slide 46
Eclipsing pairsSlide 47
Eclipsing Binaries Usually, slant point of twofold frameworks is obscure vulnerability in mass appraisals. Unique case: Eclipsing Binaries Here, we realize that we are taking a gander at the framework edge-on!Slide 48
The light bend of AlgolSlide 50
Measuring orbital period and widthsSlide 51
Measuring distances across D = V sphere (t 2 – t 1 )Slide 52
Specific portions of the principle succession are possessed by stars of a particular mass L~ M 3.5 reliance, however Cutoff at masses > 100 M and < 0.08 M Slide 53
Puzzles of H-R outline Why > 90% of stars are on the fundamental grouping? Purpose behind mass-radiance reliance and mass cutoff Same stars at various phases of life or simply unique stars?Slide 54
How would we be able to find out about the life of stars?? Our life expectancy is ~ 80 years Human development exists ~ 5000 years Our Sun exists no less than 4.6 billion years!Slide 55
Star Clusters – "School Classes" for Stars They comprise of stars of similar age ! Globular groups 100,000 of stars Open bunches 100\'s of starsSlide 56
Pleiades p. 188Slide 58
Age of the group from side road point Turnoff point: stars of that mass are going to kick the bucket and move far from the primary arrangementSlide 62
Stars spent the greater part of their lives on the Main Sequence. That is the reason it is so populated! Toward the end of its life the star moves far from the Main Sequence More huge and more iridescent stars kick the bucket quicker Hypothesis: Stars on the Main Sequence live because of atomic combination of hydrogen! Stars keep focused principle succession until all hydrogen in the center is devoured Then something ought to happenSlide 63
H-R outline 90% of stars are on the fundamental grouping and comply with the mass-iridescence reliance L ~ M 3.5 Stars on the primary arrangement create vitality because of atomic combination of hydrogen In the end of their lives stars move to the upper right corner of the H-R chartSlide 64
Mass ought to be most essential parameter It decides the weight in the star focus and the focal temperature It decides the surface temperature Check this theory How to get this reliance?Slide 65
Gravity Holds a Star Together Stars are held together by gravity. Gravity tries to pack everything to the inside. What holds a customary star up and forestalls add up to crumple is warm and radiation weight. The warm and radiation weight tries to extend the star layers outward to interminability. Newton\'s attraction law Hydrostatic balance Equation of state Energy transport Mass decides top pick\'s propertiesSlide 66
Amount of hydrogen fuel Lifetime = Rate of vitality misfortune Lifetime T ~ M/L ~ 1/M 3.5-1 = 1/M 2.5 ; p ~ 3.5 T ~ 3x10 8 years M = 4M ;Slide 68
How to clarify the cutoff at masses > 100 M and < 0.08 M Slide 69
Maximum Masses of Main-Sequence Stars M max ~ 50 - 100 sun based masses a) More gigantic mists section into littler pieces amid star arrangement. b) Very gigantic stars lose mass in solid stellar winds h Carinae Example: h Carinae: Binary arrangement of a 60 M sun and 70 M sun star. Emotional mass misfortune; real ejection in 184
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