Intuitive PC Illustrations.


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Intelligent PC Design Teacher: Amin Hammad Email: hammad@cmu.edu URL: hammad.ce.cmu.edu Available time: Room 747 Monday 9:00-11:00 (or by arrangement) Administrivia Obviously Site (hammad.ce.cmu.edu) TA: Cholyeun Hongpisanwiwat cholyeun@sis.pitt.edu
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Intuitive Computer Graphics Instructor: Amin Hammad E-mail: hammad@cmu.edu URL: hammad.ce.cmu.edu Office Hours: Room 747 Monday 9:00-11:00 (or by arrangement)

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Administrivia of Course Website (hammad.ce.cmu.edu) TA: Cholyeun Hongpisanwiwat cholyeun@sis.pitt.edu Office Hours: Monday 9:00-11:00 (or by arrangement) Book: Interactive Computer Graphics (Edward Angel) Collaboration Policy Grading: Assignments (45%) + Tests (40%) + Quizzes (15%) Difficulty/Time obliged Programming environment (principally Visual C++) Questions?

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What is Computer Graphics? Anything to do with visual representations on a PC, including Text (e.g. Japanese characters 大学) GUIs Computer Images 3D Graphics: CG enhancements, recreations, livelinesss Scientific Visualization Algorithms, hypothesis (material science, math, calculation) Display gadgets, equipment (design cards, screens)

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Course Outline Graphics Systems and Models Graphics Programming Input and Interaction Geometric Objects and Transformation Viewing Shading Advanced Topics (Object-arranged illustrations, composition mapping, bends, and so on.)

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Contents General Overview: History and utilizations of CG Graphics Systems Colors Perception Computer Colors: RGB and HSL OpenGL Introduction Some CG demos. Perusing: Angel 1, 2.4

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Historical Background: Sketchpad Ivan Sutherland, 1963, MIT: “Sketchpad: A man machine Graphical interchanges system” (first intelligent design theory, included numerous GUI ideas) Inspired numerous early illustrations analysts Sutherland likewise spearheaded VR and shrouded surface issues 1988 Turing recompense “for his spearheading and visionary commitments to PC representation, beginning with sketchpad…”

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From Text to GUIs Xerox Star: First workstation with GUI Invented at PARC in 1975. Utilized as a part of the Apple Macintosh, and now MS Windows. Xerox Star Windows 1.0

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Graphical applications Presentations (bar diagrams, charts, Powerpoint) Scientific Visualization Compressible stream around Space transport science.gmu.edu

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3 D Graphics Maybe what we for the most part consider CG Currently critical in Design (CAD) Education, Simulators, VR Games Entertainment (Movies), Art

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Landscape reproduction of Los Angeles (U ï¼£ LA)

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Effects required for Realism Shadows Reflections (Mirrors) Transparency Detail (Textures and so forth.) Complex Illumination Realistic Materials The light of Mies van der Rohe Modeling: Stephen Duck Rendering: Henrik Wann Jensen

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Geometry 70 s , 80 s : Splines 90 s : Range Data Rendering Algorithm 80 s ,90 s : Physically-based Materials/Lighting (Texture, reflectance, Lighting) Realistic Input Models Required Arnold Renderer: Marcos Fajardo Photorealistic Rendering

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Output Devices Processor Frame Buffer Memory Interactive CG Systems Input Devices Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

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Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Electron Gun Phosphor Field

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Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Electron Gun Phosphor Field Deflectors

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Phosphors Decay Light originating from a solitary phosphor does not keep going long . Human eye can distinguish a distinction inside of 20 milliseconds To show up without glimmer , the whole screen ought to be redrawn ( Refreshed ) no less than 50 times each second (50 Hz)

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The Frame Buffer Phosphors are consistently orchestrated into a 2D cluster of pix ture el ements (pixels) The Frame Buffer stores the variety of pixels that are to be initiated when the presentation is invigorated Resolution of Frame Buffer signifies the exhibit\'s span: e.g. 1280 x 1024

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Frame Buffer Monochrome System Display 000000000000000000000000 0000 11 0000 11 000000000000 0000 11 0000 11 000000000000 000000000000000000000000 00 1 00000000000 1 000000000 000 1 000000000 1 0000000000 0000 1 0000000 1 00000000000 00000 1111111 000000000000 000000000000000000000000

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Interlacing Because phosphors are little, it is troublesome for the eye to recognize starting with one phosphor then onto the next. Intertwining – To revive each other column of the presentation inside 50Hz.

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Colors in the Frame Buffer Depth: alludes to what number of bits speak to every pixel. Including bits permits the edge cradle to store if a pixel is dynamic , as well as what shading it ought to be 8 bits = 256 hues

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Triad Color CRT Deflectors Phosphor Field

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Color Displays Color code is put away in the edge support Display makes an interpretation of shading code into intensities for three electron weapons. Every weapon discharge into a suitably hued phosphor in a gathering of three (known as a triad). Triad = Pixel

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Color Spectrum Our feeling of shading is gotten from a physiological reaction to lightwaves in the noticeable electromagnetic range

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C(î») 400 700 λ Color Blending Light that we see is comprised of photons moving at different wavelengths A Color is really characterized by persistent capacity C(î») over all wavelengths of the unmistakable range

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Human Visual System Retina is contained Rod cells and 3 sorts of Cone cells Iris Rods sense dull/light Each kind of the Cones reacts best to a specific wavelength.

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Sensitivity of Cones

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Tri-shading Model The eye separates approaching light into a triplet of qualities ( RGB ). The cerebrum changes over that triplet once more into a solitary ( saw ) shading Instead of speaking to shading as a constant capacity , we can improve our representation to a triplet of Red, Green & Blue intensities .

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G (0,1,0) (1,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1) (1,0,0) (0,0,0) R (0,0,1) (1,0,1) B RGB Color Cube

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RGB Color Cube

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G (0,1,0) (1,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1) (1,0,0) (0,0,0) R (0,0,1) (1,0,1) B RGB Color Cube What does this line speak to?

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Alternative Color Model: HSL Hue : A particular shading (normally chose on a continuum) Saturation : How much is the prevailing wavelength recognized from alternate hues (How much “white” has been included) Lightness : How splendid does the shading show up.

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Understanding HSL What is the darkest shading conceivable? Dark What is the lightest shading conceivable? White What is the shading if Saturation = 0? Dim What is the shading if Saturation = 1? “ Pure” Color

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HSL Cones White Black

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HSL Cones White Grayscale Black

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HSL Cones Pure Color

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Color Coding Full range can be indicated utilizing 3 numbers. ( RGB or HSL ) These qualities can be coded into a solitary number and put away in the edge cradle

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The Pinhole Camera and Synthetic Camera Models Image plane Pinhole A perfect pinhole camera has a boundless profundity of field (all focuses are in center) The edge of perspective : the edge made by the biggest article that the camera can picture on its film plane. Outline kindness Greg Humphries

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Ray Tracing Arbitrary ways: authenticity Trace from light Most light beams don’t hit Eye Ray following Primary Rays Shadow Rays Reflected/Transmitted Rays Appel 68

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Pipeline Architecture for Graphics APIs (Application Programmer’s Interface) Frame Buffer Numeric Data Clipper Projector Rasterizer Transformer Graphics Renderer Numeric Data : Mathematical Representations of graphical shapes. Regularly as far as vertices and lines.

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Pipeline Architecture for Graphics APIs Frame Buffer Numeric Data Clipper Projector Rasterizer Transformer : Mathematical operations are performed on the information to handle development and situating of the graphical representation

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Pipeline Architecture for Graphics APIs Frame Buffer Numeric Data Clipper Projector Rasterizer Transformer Clipper : Limits the span of the dataset to contain just data that ought to be shown for a given perspective

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Pipeline Architecture for Graphics APIs Frame Buffer Numeric Data Clipper Projector Rasterizer Transformer Projector : Until this stage, our numeric representation has been managing a 3D model . This stage decreases the dataset to 2D

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Pipeline Architecture for Graphics APIs Frame Buffer Numeric Data Clipper Projector Rasterizer Transformer Rasterizer : The prepared numeric data is at long last changed over into individual pixels

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Pipeline Architecture for Graphics APIs Frame Buffer Numeric Data Clipper Projector Rasterizer Transformer Frame Buffer : Pixels are sent to the Frame Buffer to be shown at the following revive .

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OpenGL is a design API Software interface to representation equipment Hardware autonomous No windowing or abnormal state undertakings Higher level API utilities accessible ( GLU ) Application - > Higher level - > OpenGL - > Hardware Window framework separate ( GLUT , Motif, and so forth.) Benefits: Fast, standard , versatile , window-framework free Other APIs GKS (Graphical Kernel System) PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System)

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GL Related APIs GL : implements the Graphics Renderer utilizing pipeline building design GLU : (Utilities) gives some more elevated amount interfaces to projections and survey GLUT : (Utility toolbox) gives window administration and occasion taking care of

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10 minutes break

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Y Line Polygon Point x4,y4 x6,y6 x7,y7 x3,y3 x1,y1 x4,y4 x5,y5 x2,y2 x3,y3 x8,y8 x1,y1 x2,y2 X + Geographic Information System A framework for preparing advanced topical maps speaking to geographic elements and their characte

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