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Invalidation is
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Refutation is… not trying to say "no" the way toward defaming somebody\'s contention by uncovering shortcomings in it or by introducing a counterargument

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7 Principles of Refutation Fair notice Equal chance to be heard Right to inspect and scrutinize contentions and backing In nearness of invested individuals Not chief on own cause Delay choice until basic procedure has occurred All acknowledge an official conclusion

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Refutation can be arranged By level Case-level Specific By result Destructive Constructive Bargaining

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5 General Strategies of Refutation Exploratory Contradictions and irregularities Tests of proof Tests of thinking Constructive

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Exploratory Asking inquiries of raising protests intended to make rivals stand firm on issues

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Contradictions/Inconsistencies Finding contentions in a promoter\'s case that are contrary with each other and afterward utilizing them to debilitate the case

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Tests of Evidence See past address (4/24) Biased, obsolete, immaterial, inexpert, conflicting, inconsistent, erroneous, unavailable = awful ev.

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Tests of Reasoning See past address (4/17-4/19) Esp. False analogies Hasty speculation Post hoc error

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Constructive The past 4 tear separated the other individual\'s contention This one presents counterevidence and counterarguments to be weighed against the contention being negated.

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Communicating the General Refutation 1) express the point to be disproved (the case you are assaulting) 2) express your counter-guarantee significant to that point 3) bolster your case with validity, values, and/or proof 4) state unequivocally how your feedback undermines the general position of those you are invalidating

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A nullification Thesis: Capital discipline (capital punishment) is in some cases supported. Q: Do you concur that things of massive quality ought not be wrecked? A: Yes Q: Do you concur that even individuals who are culprits have esteem? A: Yes Q: Well, since people have awesome quality, not even lawbreakers ought to be demolished. So the death penalty is the wrong approach.

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A superior nullification Thesis: I ought to whip my younger sibling. Q: Is it the case that we ought not do things that are not ethically allowable? A: Yes. Q: Is it ethically admissible to intentionally hurt individuals without cause? A: No. Q: Does thumping damage? An: If effectively done, yes. Q: Do you have cause to thump younger sibling? A: No. Q: Is younger sibling a man? A: Yes. Moan. Q: Well, by your own confirmation, we ought not hurt individuals without cause, and younger sibling is a man. Since you don\'t have cause to hurt him, and thumping includes harming him, you ought not pummel him. Do you concur this is a substantial reasoning? A: Yes. Q: The theory is discredited.

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Pointing out Logical Fallacies There are beyond any reasonable amount to experience. Go to notions/ for the enormous rundown o\' deceptions

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But, we should utilize ordinary dialect Bill: "I trust that fetus removal is ethically wrong." Dave: "Of course you would say that, you\'re a priest." Bill: "What about the contentions I provided for backing my position?" Dave: "Those don\'t number. Like I said, you\'re a minister, so you need to say that premature birth isn\'t right. Further, you are only an attendant to the Pope, so I can\'t accept what you say."

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"Yeah, I know a few people say that undermining tests isn\'t right. In any case, we as a whole realize that everybody does it, so it\'s okay."

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Reporter: "Mr. Hatfield, why are regardless you battling it out with the McCoys?" Hatfield: "Well you see young fellow, my dad fought with the McCoys and his dad quarreled with them thus did my awesome grandfather." Reporter: "But why? What began all this?" Hatfield: "I don\'t properly know. I\'m certain it was the McCoys who began it all, though." Reporter: "If you don\'t know why you\'re battling, why not simply stop?" Hatfield: "Stop? What are you insane? This quarrel has been continuing for eras so I\'m certain there is a darn justifiable reason motivation behind why it began. So I intend to keep it going. It must be the correct thing to do. Give me my shooting iron kid, I see one of those McCoy skunks sneaking in the cornfield."

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Bill: "God must exist." Jill: "How do you know." Bill: "Because the Bible says so." Jill: "Why if I trust the Bible?" Bill: "Because the Bible was composed by God."

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Over the course of a few weeks the needles from the pine trees along the Wombat waterway fell into the water. Presently, numerous dead fish appeared on the waterway banks. At the point when the EPA examined, the proprietors of the Wombat River Chemical Company guaranteed that is clearly the pine needles had murdered the fish.

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Structuring a Fallacy Attack 1) acknowledge the weight of ended up being a deception is erroneous in this condition 2) recognize the factious practice that you guarantee has been damaged 3) show why the issue matters 4) charge the d-m to recommit to consistent practice 5) state unequivocally how your false notion claim undermines the general position you are discrediting.

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