IPE 4.

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Modern Revolution. Utilization of apparatus to productionlate 1700s turning jenny (mule)New vitality sources (1790 steam power)Division of work
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Industrial Revolution Application of apparatus to creation late 1700s turning jenny (donkey) New vitality sources (1790 steam power) Division of work – processing plants, motorized generation supplanted putting out framework female assembly line laborers (docile),1838 – 23% of assembly line laborers in UK men Transport Revolution - iron and coal power toward the end of 19 th century

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URBANIZATION New metropolitan urban areas rose Eric Hobsbawm Industrial populace isolated Capitalist – benefit Workers – compensation Division of work Raw cotton from Caribbean, by 1807 from USA, Native Americans, and slave work from Africa to ranches of Southern

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Indian cotton material industry decimated Raw cotton from India sent to Britain Mechanized cotton generation in Britain Factory delivered cotton sold at higher wages to Indian populace Transport upheaval railways – 1880s Iron and coal

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Why Britain? European learning and innovation Scientific upset, Enlightenment, levelheadedness, common, singular, verification Liberal state, utilization of power (Polanyi) 1834 Reform of Poor Laws Act no philanthropy, work in urban areas in plants Adam Smith (let it be,let it pass) working day broadened 15 hours, tyke work Critique by Karl Marx 1848 part in worldwide economy-maritime force

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CONTEXT What did others do? Worldwide Famines in last ¼ of 19 th century 1876-79; 1889-91; 1896-1902, sea streams, absence of downpour, product disappointments, 30-50 million individuals in China, India and Brazil passed on British in India no approach , confidence in free market Food sent out to UK (higher costs)

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France unrest and Napoleonic war Germany (Frederick List, insurance of newborn child ventures USA common war – arms fabricating 1870s and 1880s Japan Meiji Restoration 1868 state drove industrialization Thomas Glover, Mistubishi

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Slave Trade and Imperialism Not particular to Africa, 14 th century Europe imported Slavs and Greeks , Scotland, excavators and saltpan specialists oppressed in 17 and 18 th hundreds of years European and Muslims subjugated each different Romans and Greeks In Africa –gold fundamental fascination, pepper, ivory, timber, elastic, Capture and conveyance of slaves – Africa Europeans – sea transport Slave work to Americas 1450-1900 9 - 13 million Africans transported to Americas

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Triangular Trade (materials, weapons in return for slaves – ranches, mines - silver, cotton, sugar traded at incredible benefit to Europe Bristol and Liverpool major slaving ports King Leopold (Belgium) Adam Hochschild King Leopold\'s Ghost Devastation of the Congo (elastic) Joseph Conrad The Heart of Darkness Apocalypse Now

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Imperialism Began in 1400s. By 1800s give up control of Americas – new provinces in Africa, Algeria, India and Vietnam, 1878-1913 European control 1/6 th of world\'s surface Asia – China, Holland – Indonesia Portugal – Africa France N and W Africa Indochina Britain – India and S Africa Japan - Asia– Manchuria Scramble for Africa, Spheres of Influence in China

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Gold Standard 1875-1914 Curr3cny worth in gold Free development of gold Currencies relative quality in connection to gold Theory of Competitive Advantage

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