Islam and Byzantium.


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7 Islam and Byzantium ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized thus under permit. The Center East in the Season of Muhammad The Ascent of Islam Middle Easterners were a Semitic-talking individuals
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7 Islam and Byzantium

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©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized in this under permit. The Middle East in the Time of Muhammad

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The Rise of Islam Arabs were a Semitic-talking individuals Bedouins – itinerant people groups from the northern piece of the promontory Organized into tribes and ruled by a Sheik Majlis - chamber of older folks who chose the Sheik Were polytheistic; preeminent god known as Allah No organization; Allah symbolized by a consecrated stone All worshiped a huge dark shooting star cherished in the Ka’aba in Mecca

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The Role of Muhammad (570-632) Born to a vendor family yet stranded at age six Grew up to be a train administrator Married his superintendent, Khadija Disturbed about the crevice between the Bedouin qualities and the way of life of the well-to-do business elites During contemplation encounters dreams and heard a voice The heavenly attendant Gabriel summoned Muhammad to lecture the disclosures that he would be given Hegira (Hijrah), 622, Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) Forms the first Muslim group (the Umma) Returns to Mecca with an armed force and vanquishes it Visit to the Ka’aba, 630 Declared it a hallowed sanctuary and requested the icons\' obliteration of the customary confidence

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Teachings of Muhammad Monotheistic; offers life following death Koran (recitation) Five Pillars of Faith Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his Prophet Prayer five times each day and open supplication to God on Friday at twelve Observance of Ramadan, fasting from day break to dusk Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) Giving contributions to poor people (zakat) Not only an arrangement of convictions, however a lifestyle Ulama (Muslim researchers) Shari’ah (law code) Hadith (accumulation of saying from the Prophet) Strict behavioral necessities

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The Arab Empire and Its Successors Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law succeeds Muhammad Creation of an Empire After Arabs united, jihad coordinated at neighboring people groups Possible clarifications for quick development Prolonged dry spell on the Arabian landmass Desire of Islam’s pioneers to channel the energies of their new changes over Planned by the decision elites of Mecca to augment their exchange courses and bring surplus-delivering locales under their control Administration was by and large tolerant

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©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized in this under permit. The Expansion of Islam

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Succession Problems and the Rise of The Umayyads (661-750) Challenge to Abu Bakr’s choice as first caliph Umar succeeded Abu Bakr Uthman succeeded Umar in 656, yet was killed Muhammad Ali (656-661), killed in 661 Mu’awiyah got to be caliph in 661 Made his own particular family, the Umayyads, innate rulers Beginning of the eighth century new assaults propelled by Arab armed forces Tariq, 710, crossed into Spain Battle of Tours, 732 Constantinople assaulted and Muslim armada vanquished, 717 Succession Problems Shi’ites and Sunnis Revolt drove by Abu al-Abbas in 750 prompts topple of Umayyads and foundation of Abbasid tradition

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©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized in this under permit. The Abbasid Caliphate at the Height of Its Power

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The Abbasids (750-1258) Opened all workplaces to all Muslims (whether Arab or non-Arab) Capital at Baghdad Reign of Harun al-Rashid (786-809) regularly called the brilliant age Ma’mun (813-833), child of Harun al-Rashid Patron of learning Trade Caliphs tackled more magnificent standard and life Advised by a chamber, diwan, with a vizier as executive Civil war in the middle of Amin and al-Ma’mum after Harun’s passing Disintegration

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Seljuk Turks Nomadic individuals from focal Asia Capture Baghdad (1055); pioneer took the title of sultan, “ holder of power” Battle of Manzikert, 1071, Turks assumed control the vast majority of Anatolia

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©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized in this under permit. Turkish Occupation of Anatolia

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The Crusades Byzantine head Alexius I, 1096, requested help against the Turks; utilized the Holy Land as the reason Saladin (1174-1193) controlled Egypt and Syria Invaded Jerusalem in 1187 and obliterated the Christian powers The last Christian fortress, Acre, fell in 1291

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The Mongols Pastoral individuals out of the Gobi Desert to seize Persia and Mesopotamia Found it hard to conform to settled states of the Middle East When they vanquished urban areas, they: Wiped out entire populaces (even pets) Razed urban communities Destroyed agrarian works (watering system dams, and so forth) Destroyed the economy Elites changed over to Islam By fourteenth century started to part into isolated kingdoms and after that crumble The Ottoman Turks now rose on the Anatolian Peninsula

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Islamic Civilization The Wealth of Araby: Trade and Cities in the Middle East Trade thrived amid this period Development of saving money, coin, and letters of credit Urbanization Several focuses prospered all through this period Exquisite royal residences fabricated for the caliph and awesome mosques Eating propensities shifted by class

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Islamic Society All equivalent according to Allah Upper class Senior authorities, tribal elites, wealthiest dealers Farmland in the long run in the hands of the well off Slavery: originated from non-Muslim people groups Women To be approached with deference Had right to possess and acquire property Polygamy allowed Right of separation confined to the spouse Adultery and homosexuality entirely taboo Women were sequestered in their homes nor allowed social contacts with guys outside their own particular family Covering all parts of the body basic in urban territories

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Culture of Islam Philosophy and science The Arab Empire was in charge of protecting the spreading thoughts and accomplishments of old civic establishments Ibn Rushd (Averroã«s) helped reintroduce Europe to Greek works Manufacturing of paper start in the eighth century Adopted numerical framework from India; Iranian arrangement of Algebra (al-jebr); set up observatory to consider the stars; were mindful that the earth is round Advanced pharmaceutical utilizing Galen’s (c. 180-200) antiquated writings Ibn Sina (Avecinna), 980-1037, aggregated therapeutic reference book Islamic Literature Koran was viewed as the best artistic work Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat The Tales from 1001 Nights Rumi in the thirteenth century embraced convictions of Sufism to his verse al-Mus’udi (b. 896) was the first extraordinary Islamic history specialist

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Islamic Art and Architecture Blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian conventions Mosques Great Mosque of Samarra is the biggest Mosque of Cã³rdoba Palaces Alhambra in Spain Woolen mats young ladies took in the procedure from their moms Eventually made by expert artisans Decorations on all types of Islamic workmanship were Arabic script, plant and allegorical themes, geometrical outlines No representation of the Prophet Muhammad was made Muhammad cautioned against attempting to emulate God After the Rock\'s Dome, there is no non-literal representations in religious craftsmanship

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©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized thus under permit. Sample of Middle Eastern Islamic Ironwork on Window

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©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark utilized in this under permit. Wailing Wall in Jerusalem

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The Byzantine Empire The Reign of Justinian (527 – 565) Well prepared and resolved to restore the Roman Empire over the whole Mediterranean world Belisarius crushed the Vandals and the Ostrogoths His new domain fell inside of three years of his demise The Codification of Roman Law Justinian’s most enduring commitment Was the premise of magnificent law in the east until 1453 Was the premise of the European lawful framework Life in Constantinople: The Emperor’s Building Program Rebuilt Constantinople after rebellion of 532 City essential as boss port of trade of merchandise from East to West Public works, holy places royal residence, Hagia Sophia, Hippodrome

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From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire Problems after Justinian’s passing Developed another arrangement of guard New regulatory unit, the topic Combined regular citizen and military workplaces Most genuine test toward the east was Islam Problems in the Balkans and the Bulgars Beginning of eighth century considered it to be only an eastern Mediterranean state Now had special human progress its could call its own: Byzantine

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The Byzantine Empire in the Eighth Century Greek was the realm\'s dialect Christianity was the realm\'s religion Widespread utilization of symbols prompted the skeptical debate Leo III banned the utilization of symbols The Roman Popes contradicted the alters Will move both sides toward the partition between Roman Catholicism and Greek Orthodoxy Emperor was supreme and thought to be picked by God West owed much to the Byzantine Empire

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The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization In the seventh and eighth hundreds of years lost quite a bit of its region By 750 just Asia Minor, lands in the Balkans and the southern shore of Italy stayed Revival under Michael III (842-867) Reforms and observable scholarly recharging Problems Religious contention over changed Nicene Creed

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The Macedonian Dynasty (867 – 1056) Remarkable number of accomplishments Cultural impact Period of proficient rulers and solid common administration

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New Challenges to the Byzantine Empire After the Macedonian line, domain has arrangement of inept rulers Problem of developing division between the Roman Catholic church and the Greek Orthodox church Eastern Orthodox

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