Islam Topic: Religion's effect on society.

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Islam Topic: Religion's effect on society Lesson 15 ID and SIG Allah, Five Mainstays of Islam, jihad, Mecca, Medina, Muhammad, Quran, Ramadan, sharia, Shia, Sufi, Sunni, umma Islam and Muslim Islam signifies "accommodation" Implies dutifulness to the standard and will of Allah
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Islam Theme: Religion’s sway on society Lesson 15

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ID & SIG Allah, Five Pillars of Islam, jihad, Mecca, Medina, Muhammad, Quran, Ramadan, sharia, Shia, Sufi, Sunni, umma

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Islam and Muslim Islam implies “submission” Signifies submission to the standard and will of Allah A Muslim is one who acknowledges the Islamic confidence Means “one who has submitted”

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Muhammad Born in 570 into a trustworthy group of traders in Mecca Lost both of his guardians when he was 6 years of age As a young fellow, Muhammad worked for Khadija, an affluent dowager who he wedded around 595 This marriage picked up him a position of some unmistakable quality in Meccan culture By the age of 30 Muhammad had built up himself as a vendor

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Muhammad Muhammad’s status as a dealer without a doubt got him contact with both Jews and Christians and he would have had an essential information of both beliefs About 610, when he spoke the truth 40, Muhammad had a profound affair that persuaded him that there was one and only genuine god, Allah (“God”)

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Allah Elements of Muhammad’s otherworldly change Allah rules the universe Idolatry and the acknowledgment of different divine beings adds up to naughtiness Allah would soon bring his judgment on the world Muhammad got messages or disclosures from Gabriel, the chief heavenly messenger, teaching him to disclose his confidence to others

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Quran (Koran) Muhammad initially simply imparted the message to his family and dear companions, however bit by bit others got to be intrigued By around 620, a passionate and extending minority in Mecca had joined Muhammad’s circle As the Muslim group developed, Muhammad’s adherents started recording his oral recitations into composed writings During the 650s these compositions were issued as the Quran (“recitation”)

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Medina The developing prominence of Muhammad’s lecturing acquired him struggle with Mecca’s elites In 622, Muhammad fled to Medina, approximately 214 miles north of Mecca The move got to be known as the hijra (“migration”) and marks the beginning stage of the authority Islamic date-book

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Reasons for Muhammad’s Conflict in Mecca Insistence that Allah was the main genuine god conflicted with numerous polytheistic Arabs Muhammad’s impugning of ravenousness as an ethical shortcoming that Allah would rebuff undermined Mecca’s rich shippers Muhammad’s assault on heathen worship spoke to a monetary danger to the individuals who benefitted from the numerous hallowed places to the different gods Ka’ba was one such sanctuary

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Umma In Mecca, Muhammad had lived inside of a set up political structure and along these lines focused on good and religious measurements In Medina, the general public in a state of banishment required direction in more than simply otherworldly matters Muhammad sorted out his devotees into a firm group called the umma (“community of the faithful”)

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Umma Muhammad gave a far reaching legitimate and social code He drove the group in supplication to God and in fight He gave financial organizing so as to back both business wanders and by striking troops from Mecca He accommodated the alleviation of vagrants and widows and made almsgiving a prime good esteem

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Umma Individuals fit in with a group The positive advantages of all who grasp Islam (social equity, solidarity and reason, and political strength) are delighted in by all in zones guided by Islamic law ( dar al-Islam implies the “house of Islam” and alludes to arrives under Islamic tenet) Mecca Detroit East London

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Return to Mecca In 630, Muhammad assaulted Mecca, vanquished it, and constrained the elites to receive the confidence Destroyed agnostic altars and supplanted them with mosques Imposed an administration committed to Allah Building on the success of Mecca, Muhammad dispatched other military crusades and when of his demise in 632, the greater part of Arabia was under his control

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Ka’ba Muhammad saved the Ka’ba from annihilation and saved it as an image of Mecca’s significance In 632, Muhammad drove the first journey to the Ka’ba Established the hajj as a sample for all ardent Muslims

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Five Pillars of Islam Acknowledge Allah as the main god and Muhammad as his prophet ( iman ) Pray to Allah day by day while confronting Mecca ( salah ) Observe a quick amid sunshine hours of the month of Ramadan ( sawm ) Contribute aid to the help of the powerless and poor ( zakah ) Those who are physically and monetarily capable must make no less than one journey to Mecca ( hajj )

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Translation of the Adan (Call to Prayer) God is Great. God is Great. God is Great. God is Great. I affirm that there is none deserving of love aside from God. I affirm that there is none deserving of love aside from God. I affirm that Muhammad is the courier of God. I affirm that Muhammad is the dispatcher of God. Come to petition to God! Come to request to God! Come to achievement! Come to achievement! God is Great! God is Great! There is none deserving of love aside from God.

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Ramadan Ninth month of the Islamic logbook A period for inward reflection, commitment to God, and poise Daily time of fasting from sunrise to sunset Observers absolutely avoid nourishment, drink, smoking, and sex Ramadan closes with an euphoric festival called ’Eid-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Fast-Breaking)

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Anticipated Days for Ramadan First Day 2010: Aug 11â  Â â â    Last Day 2010: Sept 9 First Day 2011:  Aug 1â  Last Day 2007: Aug 29 First Day 2012: July 20    â â    Last Day 2012: Aug 18 Muslims utilize the lunar date-book which is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian timetable Takes around 35 years to experience the whole cycle

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Jihad Sometimes called the 6th column Jihad is more than a “holy war” It is an effort or battle in accomplishing the methods for Allah It obliges a carefulness “against every one of that occupies us from God and effort to do His will inside of ourselves and in addition saving and restoring the request and concordance that He has willed for Islamic culture and the world about us.” Seyyed Nasr in Our Religions, ed. Arvind Sharma, 475

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Jihad In the late 20 th and mid 21 st Centuries, radicals started utilizing the idea of jihad to excuse and legitimize terrorism and insurgency “… in consistence with Allah’s request, we issue the accompanying fatwa [a lawful proclamation issued by a religious law master on a particular issue] to all Muslims: The decision to murder the Americans and their partners - regular people and military - is an individual obligation for each Muslim who can do it in any nation in which it is conceivable to do it, keeping in mind the end goal to free the al-Aqsa Mosque and the heavenly mosque [Mecca] from their grasp, and all together for their armed forces to move out of the considerable number of grounds of Islam, vanquished and not able to undermine any Muslim. This is as per the expressions of Almighty Allah, ‘and battle the agnostics all together as they battle all of you together,’ and ‘fight them until there is no more tumult or abuse, and there win equity and confidence in Allah.’” World Islamic Front Statement, 23 February 1998

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Islamic Ethics Islam qualities rehearse over conviction Of the Five Pillars, four concern practice (acts, deeds or attempts) that followers must satisfy Prayer Fasting Almsgiving Pilgrimage Living accurately overshadows beliefs and precepts

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Sharia After the demise of Muhammad, the sharia , Islamic blessed law, rose to give nitty gritty direction on fitting conduct in each part of day by day life Drew its motivation from the Quran and chronicled records of Muhammad’s life and teachings Through the sharia, Islam turned out to be more than a religious convention It formed into a lifestyle complete with social and moral qualities got from Islamic religious tenet.

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Expansion of Islam Muhammad made no procurements for a successor after his passing Serious divisions emerged Within a brief timeframe in any case, the Islamic group dispatched a progression of military battles that amplified its impact a long ways past the limits of Arabia

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Caliphs Since Muhammad was “the seal of the prophets,” nobody could succeed him as another prophet Abu Bakr, one of Muhammad’s dearest friend’s and pupils tailed him as caliph (“deputy”) Caliphs would lead the umma as lieutenants or substitutes for Muhammad, as opposed to as prophets

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Expansion and Problems Islamic warriors increased astounding triumphs over the Byzantine and Sasanid domains which were depleted from battling one another and attacked by inside issues Expansion of Islam to 750

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Expansion and Problems As Islam extended, it was confronted with issues of administration and organization One issue was selecting the caliphs Political desire, individual contrasts, and tribe loyalties confounded the procedure Disagreements over progression prompted the development of the Shia order

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Shia (“party”) are the most critical different option for the greater part Muslim bunch, the Sunni (“traditionalists”) Shiites favored Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and child in law, as caliph rather than Abu Bakr Ali did turn into the fourth caliph (656-661) yet was killed and his executioners forced their own particular caliph Shiites energetically opposed and attempted to give back the caliphate to the line of Ali

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Shia Shiites fortified their personality by receiving precepts and customs unmistakable from the Sunnis Observed heavenly days to pay tribute to their pioneers and saints Taught that the re

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