Island biogeography.

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Island in the Bay of Fundy. What controls the quantity of plant and ... Avifaunal differing qualities in the south Pacific: the impacts of separation from PNG ...
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Island biogeography What controls the quantity of plant and creature species on this island? Does measure make a difference? Confinement? Natural surroundings variety? Natural history? Island in the Bay of Fundy

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Species - region connections Johann Reinhold Forster (1729-98) served as a botanist with Captain Cook. Subsequent to investigating the islands of the southern Pacific he watched: "Islands just deliver a more prominent or less number of species as their outline is pretty much broad". Little islands harbor less species . The Forsters\' (dad & child) gathering examples in Tahiti

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Species-zone connections Arrhenius (1921) "Species and Area" Gleason (1922) "On the connection amongst species and territory". Biology, 3. Gleason censused the plants in 240 1m 2 plots in an aspen wood in northern Michigan. He discovered 27 species altogether, with a normal of 4 species for every quadrat.

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Species-territory connections Preston (1962) "The accepted dissemination of commonewss and irregularity". Biology, 43. Preston presented the \'Arrhenius condition\': S = cA z where S is number of species, An is plot region, and c and z are constants.

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Applying the Arrhenius condition to Gleason\'s information: z = incline c = capture

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Variations in estimation of c e.g. creepy crawlies plants e.g. warm blooded creatures

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Variations in the estimation of z true cases (0.26-0.33)

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What controls the species-region bend?

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What do these have in like manner? 1 3 2 4

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West Indian avifaunas

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Avifaunal confirmation from maritime islands 1000 100

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MacArthur and Wilson\'s "Hypothesis of Equilibrium Island Biogeography" (1967) = balance species number

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The impacts of island size

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Species-territory bend, Galapagos Islands

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Galapagos plant assorted qualities and microclimate: region is an intermediary for living space variability <300 m >500 m

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Plant differing qualities in the south Pacific: is the variability controlled by living space variety?

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The impacts of island separation

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Probability of achievement with target separation (representation)

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Dispersal likelihood with island separation

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Avifaunal differing qualities in the south Pacific: the impacts of separation from PNG

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Real-world varieties

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Testing the MacArthur and Wilson hypothesis A. Regular investigations - Krakatau/Rakata

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Bird and warm blooded animal assorted qualities on the leftover islands of Krakatau versus the biodiversity of neighboring islands Rakata leftovers neighbors Rakata

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Rakata winged animal colonization McArthur & Wilson\'s balance forecasts from adjacent islands: 30 flying creature species 40 yrs to balance; turnover: 1 species/yr. ? Overview dates

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Rakata: plant colonization

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Rakata: plant migration and annihilation

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Testing the hypothesis: counterfeit investigations I: defaunation and colonization Small mangrove islands in the Florida keys

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Testing the hypothesis: simulated examinations II: colonization of manufactured substrates Fouling boards

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Variations in turnover rate at harmony

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Extending the hypothesis "Insularity is besides a general element of biogeography. A large number of the standards graphically showed in the Galapagos Islands and other remote archipelagos apply in lesser or more prominent degree to every single common living space" e.g. peak elevated zones; islands of trees at the cold treeline, urban parks, lakes, lowlands, desert gardens, clearcuts, islands of divided living space, and even individual rocks, plants, and so forth

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Lake and swamp islands

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Mountain islands Distribution of snow capped tundra environments in BC; an archipelago shaped by several ± discrete islands isolated by woodland and prairie in the neighbouring valleys.

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Mountain islands

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Vacant urban parcels Vacant urban part, Philadelphia Crowe, L. M. 1979. Bunches of weeds: isolated phytogeography of empty urban parcels. J. Biogeography 6 : 169-181.

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Fragmented environment islands 1830 1882 "the separation of an expansive landmass into littler units would essentially prompt the elimination or neighborhood eradication of one or more animal varieties and the differential conservation of others" Alphonse de Candolle, 1855 True for all living spaces; e.g. Wisconsin forests 1902 1950

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Urban parks: reproducing feathered creatures, Madrid (Spain)

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