Issues Confronted By Extensive Phonetic Minorities: An East-West Examination.

Uploaded on:
Latvia not joined into Soviet Union until 1944. Russians started emigrating to Latvia ...
Slide 1

Issues Faced By Large Linguistic Minorities: An East-West Comparison Jennifer Pyclik November 28, 2005

Slide 2

Catalan in Spain Tension with Castilian speakers Catalonia set up its own administration in 1930s Catalan made authority dialect

Slide 3

Catalan under Franco administration Franco administration: 1939-1975 Prohibitions on utilization of Catalan; advancement of Castilian Attempt to make bound together Spanish state and character Influx of migrants into Catalonia

Slide 4

Catalan today Became an official dialect of Spain in 1978 Castilian, Galician, and Basque 7.3 million speakers 7 th most talked dialect in EU Given extraordinary status Catalonia: 79% of populace talks it while about all can comprehend it Catalan, not Spanish, personality

Slide 5

Catalonian dialect strategies 1998 Language Law Catalan authority dialect; all required to learn it Government authorities must utilize Catalan Public reports must be delivered in Catalan Names of people must be in Catalan

Slide 6

Education Policy Catalan essential dialect of training Castilian might be utilized if native language Proficiency as a part of Catalan and Castilian prerequisite for optional school graduation Either can be utilized at college level, however college required to advance Catalan

Slide 7

Latvian Latvia not consolidated into Soviet Union until 1944 Russians started emigrating to Latvia after the war, making a minority Today there are more than 500,000 ethnic Russians Russian primary language for 40% of the populace

Slide 8

Russification under Soviets Russian authority dialect of gov\'t 1958: kids did not need to learn minority dialect Almost all youngsters "picked" to study Russian Few ethnic Russians contemplated Latvian Promotion of joined Soviet character

Slide 9

Post-Communist Language Policy 1989: pronounced Latvian to be legitimate dialect Latvian capability exam required for citizenship Applied to the individuals who had lived in Latvia for quite a long time Political competitors required to know Latvian Government oversight office made to execute professional Latvian approaches Promotion of Latvian in at all instruction levels

Slide 10

Education Policy Revised in 1998: advancement of bilingual training (at lower grade levels) Separate minority dialect schools Gradual increment of courses instructed in Latvian coming full circle in Latvian-just training at auxiliary level Gov\'t guarantees understudy asking for more Latvian instruction

Slide 11

International Reaction to Latvian Policies Russian government resentful about treatment of ethnic Russians 1993: Duma strategy "abuse of Russians in the geopolitical space of the previous Soviet Union could be translated as justification for Russian military mediation" Cause taken up by ultra-moderates Russians International people group needs to counteract war

Slide 12

OSCE intercession Latvia modified dialect laws in 1998 OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities sent stern letter asking for that the law be reconsidered Law experienced two modifications until OSCE endorsed

Slide 13

Comparison Attempts by oppressive administrations to smother minority/advance lion\'s share dialect Unified character After administration, "locales" pick up self-governance/freedom and advance their own particular dialect and personality Minority dialects can be utilized yet larger part dialect unequivocally energized or required

Slide 14

Comparison Official gov\'t dialects National level: Spain has four; Latvia one Catalonia perceives Aranese in Aran Valley International impedance happened just in the East Threat of ethnic savagery Catalan arrangements just at provincial level Perceptions of what is brutal and what is satisfactory dialect assurance

Slide 15

Bibliography Aasland, Aadne and Tone Flotten. "Ethnicity and Social Exclusion in Estonia and Latvia," Europe-Asia Studies 53(7) (2001): 1023-1049. Adler, Katya. "Applicants play Catalan card," BBC News, 14 Nov. 2003, found at there/europe/3270397.stm (last went by 29 Sept 2005). Adrey, Jean-Bernard. "Minority Language Rights Before and After the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhargen Criteria in the Baltic States," Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 26(5) (2005): 453-468. Burgen, Stephen. "Barcelona confronts another test of differences," The London Times 23 Apr. 2003. Dunoff, Jeffrey L., Steven R. Ratner, and David Wippman. Global Law: Norms, Actors, Process-A Problem-Oriented Approach (New York: Aspen Publishers, Inc. 2002). Generalitat (Government of Catalonia); Catalan, Language of Europe ; found at (last went to 29 Sept. 2005). Dialect Policy Report 2002 ; found at (last went by 29 Sept. 2005). Grenoble, Lenore. Dialect Policy in the Soviet Union (Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003). Kolsto, Pal. "The New Russian Diaspora: Minority Protection in the Soviet Successor States," Journal of Peace Research 30(2) (1993): 197-217.

Slide 16

Bibliography Lipset, Harry. "The Status of National Minority Languages in Soviet Education," Soviet Studies 19(2) (1967): 181-189. Llei de politica linguistica, Act No. 1, of seventh January 1998, on phonetic strategy, found at (last went to 29 Sept. 2005) Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Latvia, "Coordination Policy in Latvia-A Multi-Faceted Approach" (28 Sept. 2005) found at went by 28 Oct. 2005) ["Integration Policy"] "Minority Education in Latvia" (11 July 2005) found at went to 28 Oct. 2005) "National Agency for Latvian Language Training" (11 July 2005) found at went by 28 Oct. 2005) Rees, Earl L. "Spain\'s Linguistic Laws: The Catalan Controversy," Hispania 79(2) (1996): 313-321. Determination of the European Parliament A3-169/90, December 11, 1990, on Languages in the Community and the Situation of Catalan (OJEC-C19, 28 th January 1991) Sharrock, David. "Catalan youngsters leave their local tongue in class," The London Times 17 June 2003. Wilkinson, Isambard. "Youthful Catalans say "no" to their territorial dialect," Daily Telegraph (London) 12 August 2003. Wright, Susan, ed. Dialect, Democracy and Devoluion in Catalonia (Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd, 1999).

View more...