Japan.


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Which one is more important to comprehend legislative issues in different social orders? ... 1952 San Francisco Treaty (US army installations on Japan) transforms Japan into an American partner. ...
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Slide 1

Japan

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"The Japanese Version" List three things that called your consideration/shocked you about the Japanese while viewing the narrative… Why these ? Utilizing the thoughts displayed as a part of Lane\'s book, talk about: What is/are the hypothetical and methodological point of view/s from which this narrative is by all accounts imagined? What does a methodology like the one showed in the film add to the investigation of foundations? Which one is more important to comprehend legislative issues in different social orders?

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Japan Second world mechanical force (after the US) Stable however new majority rules system (after WWII) No military force Liberal and cutting edge, yet Non-Western Being an island, it has delighted in relative disengagement ( ≈ the UK) yet for quite a while it has been affected by China (ex: composed dialect), Europe and the United States (Twice) Unique and strange?

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Japan: a bigot society? Profoundly homogeneous populace Overcrowding—Limits to migration Exoticizing otherness (ex: Japanese observations on Americans)  Yet, who does not exoticize the Other?

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Ancient-history 6 th century: One faction brings together control over numerous (warrior) tribes, and forces sovereign Jimmu. Confucianism and Buddhism touch base from China, and superimpose to the nearby Shinto confidence - syncreticism. Improvement of a conventional medieval society (with rulers, samurai — inherited warriors, continuos wars, serfs) seventh eighth hundreds of years: foundation of an incorporated bureaucratic government (Emperor delegated open officers… Confucian thought of "government by legitimacy") twelfth century: (genetic) Shoguns (primitive framework) Aislationism : in the seventeenth century, Christianity was taboo, and Japanese boats were prohibited to leave Japan

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Freeing Trade In 1853, American Commodore Perry conveyed to Japan a message from the U.S. President requesting that the Japanese open the nation to remote exchange The Japanese were compelled to sign a settlement on exchange... What\'s more, numerous different settlements from that (on the most proficient method to treat nonnatives lawfully, and in addition on levies)

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The inconvenience of exchange by the Americans prompted inward political shakiness and the oust of the T okugawa Dynasty of shoguns (1603-1867/8) Meiji reclamation (samurai oligarchs)

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From Empire to Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy 1868-1911 Meiji Period 1889 Imperial (Meiji) Constitution Monarchy in view of heavenly right, capable official and feeble governing body (Diet) The Emperor and the samurai concentrated power and picked the Prime Minister (Victorious) wars with China (1894/5) and Russia (1904/5): Japan obtained Taiwan and a piece of Manchuria. Korea was fused in 1910, and the military picked up force and esteem From WWI, Japan develops as a monetary power and takes an interest in the Versailles Treaty and the League of Nations

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From Empire to Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy Taisho (Great Righteousness) Democracy: 1918: A plebeian from the Constitutional Party (made in the 1880s) is chosen as Prime Minister  Towards Democratization? 1925, all inclusive (male) suffrage and democratization of the lower house Intense political movement amid the 1920s But… ascent of militarism amid the 1930s A result of the financial emergency? Manikin regular citizen government—Expansionism—WAR (1937 with China) Confirmation of Emperor Hirohito\'s power  Showa period (patriotism) 1940, Alliance with Italy and Germany. Disintegration of political gatherings

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Japan & WWII December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor August 1945, utilization of nuclear bombs by the US Japanese surrender and acknowledge Postdam\'s conditions US control of Japan

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From Empire to Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy 1947 McArthur Constitution (Gral. McArthur, leader of the occupation strengths). Ruler Hirohito stays in force, yet he repudiates "holiness" and whatever is left of the honorability is abrogated 1940s Organization of gatherings (Liberal, Socialist) Beginning of the financial revamping of the nation—State intercession (value control, changes) 1950: retreat closes 1950s: 1952 San Francisco Treaty (US army installations on Japan) transforms Japan into an American partner. 1955 Beginning of the traditionalist authority (accentuation on financial development and redistribution) Strong verbal confrontations between gatherings on the privilege and the left about the part and fate of Japan (mobs)

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The Japanese "wonder." 9% yearly monetary development from 1955 to 1973 (and 4-5% a short time later). In 1970, Japan was the 3 rd economy on the planet. Insider facts: State arranging ("Take off" MITI). Corporate/gvt. Ties Long term ventures (and expected increases) Technology Good conditions for laborers/customers Skilled workforce

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The Japanese "supernatural occurrence" Despite the 1973 Oil emergency, development proceeds (late 70s) From hardware to a "Learning economy". Insightful hypotheses on Post-Fordism or Toyotism Declining part of MITI 1987 Peak of the "supernatural occurrence" 1988-92-Financial Crisis ("Bubble" economy)

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The Government Constitutional government (male Emperor) Emperor Akihito (1989) Heisei Era (Peace Attained). A long time of the times outline the timetable Unitary State (47 prefectures) Parliamentary majority rule government (Prime Minister/Cabinet) (=The United Kingdom?) (yet) Written Constitution: the MacArthur Constitution blesses the general population as the sovereign

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Art. 9 Japanese Constitution Japan repudiated to utilize military force (truth be told, Japan has a solid military )

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Political Parties Oirigin: Samurai battles (of those prohibited from force) amid the nineteenth century 1898 Constitutional gathering 1940 Party (self) disintegration 1945-55 Multi-party framework 1955 (two Socialist portions join together, and the Conservative shape the Liberal Democratic Party) 1955-1993 "One-party prevailing framework" 1993 New appointive framework

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Liberal Democratic Party\'s Hegemony From 1945-55: multi-party framework From 1955 to 1993, the LDP won each broad race . One-party-overwhelming framework. 1970s Frequent changes in bureau, PM acquiescence, groups. Late 80s mid 90s: Economic Recession LDP strength closes in 1993, yet it returns in 1994 driving diff. coalitions (liberal/radical)… One PM consistently

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1993 New Coalition (Morihiro Hosokawa) Electoral Law Lower House: 500 delegates, 300 chose through SMD and 200 (diminished to 180 in 2000) through relative representation Each voter throws two tickets Preferred hopeful in the SMD Preferred gathering Upper House (2000 law): 253 (?) SNTV (single part non transferable vote)

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Japan Politics Today Unstable gathering framework (continous development and deterioration of gatherings—TV) 2001—Popular and magnetic Junichiro Koizumi got to be head administrator. Change guarantees… brought about minimal solid change , and the financial emergency proceeds. Japanese society has changed in the most recent decade, and it is not clear how to come back to development. Instability about the universal part/s Japan may need to play Increasing thwarted expectation from legislative issues Corruption

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The Executive Prime Minister ( Junichiro Koizumi ) (chose by the lower House yet named by the Emperor) may submit bills for the sake of the bureau Member of the greater part, or speaking to a coalition . President of the safeguard powers Can be expelled by votes of no certainty Cabinet (the greater part of its individuals originate from the Diet ≈ UK )

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Legislative The Diet (most noteworthy organ of government, made in 1889) Kokkai House of Councilors (252? 247?, 6 year-term, restoration of the a large portion of like clockwork). Consolidates SMD & PR House of Representatives (480, 4-year-term). 300 seats are conveyed by through SMD, and 200 through PR, the rest through PR (11 "squares"). It has the more noteworthy force. Can be broken up (by and large every 2 or 3 years). "General races." Each voter throws 2 votes ( ≈ German framework) The individuals from both houses are chosen fairly through suffrage (diff. With the UK and Germany)

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The Judiciary (Unitary System) Supreme Court (named by the bureau—its head ritualistically "named" by the Emperor. It is subjected to the general population\'s endorsement in the following race) has the force of legal survey 8 High courts 50 District Courts 50 Family Courts Summary Courts

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Source: McNelly, Theodore, "The Government of Japan," Intro. To Comparative Gvt. Diet Election Dissolution Legislation Des. Head administrator/No Confidence Review enactment People (sovereign) Administration Review Cabinet Supreme Court Appointment of judges Administration of equity

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The State Bureaucracy Prestigious bureaucratic professions (upgraded by the Confucian convention) Insulation Cabinet individuals have a tendency to be vocation government officials (and driving lawmakers often originate from bureaucratic professions) Links to partnerships

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Importance of Consensus Deliberation committees connected to intrigue bunches inside the group casually intercede in the authoritative procedure (get ready bills) Link Syllabus class on Post-war Japan

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