Precious stones: Beauty and Brawn Carl Wozniak Graduate Gemologist (GIA) Northern Michigan UniversitySlide 2
The appeal of jewels The world\'s adoration for precious stones began in India. Romans set uncut precious stones in adornments By the 1400s, jewels had ended up stylish in Europe. Roman ring, 4 A.D.Slide 3
Why the appeal? Precious stones are appreciated on the grounds that: They are uncommon They are sturdy They are excellent They have esteem They are costly to mine and cutSlide 4
Cutting Diamonds are to a great degree hard. Keeping in mind the end goal to cut them, you need to utilize different precious stones. Unpleasant precious stoneSlide 6
Diamond life systems A round splendid cut jewel has either 57 or 58 aspects.Slide 7
What makes jewels shimmer? A cleaned precious stone\'s magnificence lies in a mind boggling association with the light around it. Features on the stone reflect light remotely and inside.Slide 8
What makes precious stones shimmer? We see this interaction amongst light and the jewel in three qualities Brilliance - the extent to which light from inside the stone comes back to our eye Fire - the play of hues from the refraction of light inside the stone Scintillation - the bits of light that blaze as the stone is movedSlide 9
Brilliance In splendid stones, a great part of the light that enters leaves through the crown. Less splendid stones result when light breaks out the structure.Slide 10
Fire, otherwise called scattering, is the shading play inside a jewel brought on by refraction of light in the stone.Slide 11
Scintillation is brought on by light reflecting off the stone\'s aspects.Slide 12
Grading precious stones Why grade jewels? Precious stone evaluating: Makes it conceivable to examine jewels basically and briefly; Helps you look at stones; Helps recognize quality.Slide 13
Grading jewels The 4 "C\'s" Color Clarity Cut Carat weightSlide 14
Hope Diamond 45.52 ct., VS-1, Fancy profound grayish blue Color While there are extravagant shaded precious stones that can be greatly costly, ordinary jewels increment in worth as they get nearer to drab. The right now utilized reviewing scale was produced by the Gemological Institute of America A, B, C were not used to avoid perplexity with existing scales.Slide 15
Rule of thumb Colorless face up and confront down D, E, F Colorless face up, almost drab face down G, H, I, J Faint yellow face up, weak yellow face down K, L, M Very light yellow face up and confront down N, O, P, Q, R Light yellow (significant) shading face up or down S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, ZSlide 16
Color is extremely hard to judge in mounted stones Proper lighting is keySlide 17
Clarity Most precious stones accompany some measure of "garbage" inside them. We call these considerations . Scratches and other surface defects are called flaws . Prior to the 1950s individuals in the precious stone industry had no real way to precisely depict a jewel\'s components so that everybody comprehended them similarly.Slide 18
Clarity The GIA\'s jewel reviewing framework was produced in 1953 to give experts an approach to assess precious stones and impart quality to others.Slide 19
Clarity Five clarity calculates that decide the evaluation of a jewel Size of consideration Number of incorporations Position of considerations Nature of incorporations Color or alleviation of incorporations The clarity evaluation is not in view of the total of everything in the stone, yet depends on the biggest and most obvious qualities.Slide 20
Typical Inclusions Needles Clouds Pin focuses Feathers CrystalsSlide 21
Clarity Grades Flawless (F) stones are exceedingly uncommon and never worn. Faultless stones have no unmistakable incorporations under 10 X amplification, and there are no imperfections on the stone\'s surface. Millenium Star , 203.04 ct., D, FlawlessSlide 22
Clarity Grades Internally Flawless (IF) jewels can possibly get to be impeccable stones. Inside faultless stones have no unmistakable considerations under 10 X amplification, yet there are imperfections on the stone\'s surface.Slide 23
Clarity Grades Very Slightly (VVS) included precious stones Contain minute incorporations that are amazingly or extremely troublesome for a gifted grader to see under 10 X. VVS 1 = greatly hard to see face up (maybe a couple pin focuses) VVS 2 = to some degree simple to seeSlide 24
Clarity Grades Very Slightly (VS) included jewels Contain minor considerations that are hard to simple for a gifted grader to see under 10 X. Versus 1 = hard to see incorporations VS 2 = to some degree simple to see Typically little gems or quills close to the edge.Slide 25
Clarity Grades Slightly Included (SI) jewels Contain detectable incorporations that are simple or simple for a talented grader to see under 10 X. SI 1 = simple to see considerations SI 2 = simple to see. Eye noticeable. Ordinarily precious stones, plumes or mists halfway found.Slide 26
Clarity Grades Included (I) precious stones Contain clear considerations to a gifted grader under 10 X. I 1 = very unmistakable considerations I 2 = effortlessly obvious I 3 = to a great degree noticeable. Influences the stone\'s solidness. I-2 I-3Slide 27
Cut Diamonds can be cut in a wide range of shapes , yet this is not all we mean by "cut." Cut alludes to the state of the precious stones, as well as its extents and completion , components which decide the radiance of the jewel.Slide 28
Cut Round splendid cut precious stones have been examined the most. They are the most well-known The extents are moderately predictableSlide 29
Cut Misalignment of features, distorted aspects, and directing issues go as an inseparable unit. Where you discover one, you\'ll as a rule discover the others.Slide 31
Carat weight Diamonds weight is measured in carats. 1 ct. = 1/5 gm. 1/100 ct. = 1 pointSlide 32
Carat weight Rule of Thumb 1 All different things being equivalent, the greater the stone, the more costly it is.Slide 33
Carat weight Rule of Thumb 2 Cost hops significantly at "enchantment sizes."Slide 34
The consideration and nourishing of precious stones Diamonds have a high liking for oil. Unpleasant jewels are really sorted utilizing oil tables. Oil changes the refractive record of the stone, making light hole out the structure.Slide 35
The consideration and nourishing of jewels Use an old toothbrush and sudsy water to clean under the stone. Can likewise utilize ultrasound or steam Keep gold gems far from chlorine dye.Slide 36
Synthetic precious stones Synthetic jewels are turning out to be more basic, yet they are normally little stones, yellowish stones. Precious stones are made under temperatures of around 2,200 º F and 50,000 environments.Slide 37
Synthetic precious stones Cremated remains can be made into jewel.Slide 38
Common Diamond Simulants Cubic Zirconium (Zircon Oxide) CZ has marginally less splendor or shimmer than a precious stone and more fire or flashes of shading CZ additionally comes in numerous hues.Slide 39
Common Diamond Simulants Telling CZ from precious stone About 75% heavier than jewel CZ is milder, you see this in scraped aspect intersections Orange structure streak Usually immaculate Many hues Thermal conductivitySlide 40
Common Diamond Simulants Moissanite-Silicon carbide Has considerations and shading contrasts Similar warm conductivity Very hard Slightly lighter than precious stone Moissanite has significantly more fire than precious stone.Slide 41
Common Diamond Simulants Moissanite-Silicon carbide But, moissanite is emphatically doubly refractiveSlide 42
A little information will improve you a customer. You\'re welcome to clean and inspect your own stones.
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