L ocation B ased S ervices for Mobile Devices Embedded Computing Seminar Shay HorovitzSlide 2
Location Technologies GPS - Global Positioning System AGPS - Assisted GPS Cell ID Cell ID + Timing Advance Signal Strength Based AOA - Angle Of Arrival TOA - Time Of Arrival TDOA - Time Difference of Arrival EOTD - Enhanced Observed Time Difference Keypad based (snap the location yourself) Camera based (taking pictures of signs) Hybrid arrangements RF Fingerprinting (on telephones that will bolster WLAN)Slide 4
History Mariners depended upon the sun for scope, and timekeepers for longitude With the dispatch of Sputnik in 1957, radio-based worldwide situating turned into a (hypothetical) probabilitySlide 6
TRANSIT This was an exceptionally unrefined type of GPS utilizing one and only satellite (1960s) Submarines utilized it Could just be utilized each 35-45 minutes Submarine must stay composedSlide 7
TIMATION (1960s) Another satellite (TIMATION I) was propelled to upgrade the TRANSIT framework Major development was the incorporation of a nuclear clock Submarines could now be in movement and utilize the frameworkSlide 8
NAVSTAR In 1973, NAVSTAR started research & improvement 1978 – the initial 4 satellites were dispatched Operated by the Department of Defense Primary mission is to give precise directions to land, ocean & air-based military powers Cost about $18,000,000,000 to grow… as suchSlide 9
There are three parts of GPS 1.) Space (e.g. satellites) 2.) Control (i.e. a ground station at a known geographic area) 3.) UserSlide 10
How it worksSlide 11
Satellites The GPS collector decisively measures the time it takes a sign to venture out from a satellite to the beneficiary There are parcels and bunches of satellites Anyone need to think about what number of?Slide 12
Details 6 orbital planes, included at 55 degrees to the equator, each with 4 satellites 21 dynamic satellites, 3 reinforcements Orbit the earth at 12,541 miles and have an orbital time of 11 hrs. 56 min.Slide 13
Satellite TriangulationSlide 14
what number focuses do you require? Utilizing one satellite contracts the separation to a circle around the satellite Using two satellites , you\'ll discover your area inside a circle (past slide) Using three satellites constrains your area to just 2 focuses Usually, it is conceivable to figure out which point Using four satellites affirms your area and gives you 2 readings for elevation Usually you can figure out which is rightSlide 15
The significance of time Both satellites and collectors create Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) A Link 1 (L1) bearer sign is created at 1575.42 MHz and Link 2 (L2) transporter sign is created at 1227.60 MHz Carrier signs are tweaked to deliver coded signs, for example, C/A code (at 1.023 MHz) and the P code (at 10.23 MHz) The frequencies are recurrence balanced to deliver step-works The codes rehash each millisecond The satellites accompany cesium or rubidium tickersSlide 16
Time slackSlide 17
Selective Acquisition The US military was worried about the likelihood of fear mongers or other disagreeable individuals utilizing GPS to definitely direct a rocket (or other threatening gadget) The intentionally presented mistakes in the time inserted in the sign This made areas be up to 100m off Turned off on 2 May 2000Slide 18
Selective AcquisitionSlide 19
2010 GPS III framework will dispatch Should be significantly more exact than the 8m exactness restrain as of now set upSlide 20
Tech: AGPS GPS has a moderate time to settle unless it is forever following satellites To illuminate the characteristic confinements with GPS, Assisted GPS was proposed Assisted GPS is based after giving GPS satellite data to the handset, by means of the phone systemSlide 21
Tech: AGPS Assisted GPS gives upgrades in Time to First Fix Battery Life Sensitivity Cost Assistance Data Satellite Position Time data Visible GPS List SensitivitySlide 22
Tech: Cell ID Cell ID: the phone that the portable is associated with Operator\'s know where their phone locales are Accuracy is subject to cell thickness Can be actualized both system based or gadget basedSlide 23
Tech: Cell IDSlide 24
Tech: Cell ID + Timing Advance (TA) TA is the time delay between the versatile and serving base station Resolution is 500 meters Serving cell personality and TA are accessible in systemsSlide 25
Tech: Signal Strength Based Measure signal quality from the control stations of a few Base Stations If signal levels from 3 distinctive BSs are known, it\'s conceivable to compute the areaSlide 26
Tech: Signal Strength BasedSlide 27
Tech: AOA - Angle Of Arrival Measure the edge of arrived sign between base station and portable station Location blunder increments as portable is a long way from BSsSlide 28
Tech: TOA - Time Of Arrival Measure the season of arrived sign between base station and versatile station Mobile station situates at the convergence point which will be made by more than 3 circlesSlide 29
Tech: TDOA – Time Difference Of Arrival Measure the time contrast of arrived sign between base station and portable station : Minimum three base stations Mobile station situates at the crossing point which will be made by more than 3 hyperbolasSlide 30
Tech: TDOA – Time Difference Of ArrivalSlide 31
Tech: EOTD – Enhanced Observed Time Difference Added gadget, LMU ( Location Measurement Unit ), whose area is known LMU and versatile station measure the time distinction of arrived sign from base station in the meantime Mobile station situates at the convergence point which will be made by more than 3 hyperbolasSlide 32
Tech: EOTD – Enhanced Observed Time DifferenceSlide 33
Tech: Keyboard Based You set your area! Illustration: Navigation Software: Manually set cause Manually set goal Approve when every progression is finished to get the following stride directionsSlide 34
Tech: Camera Based Take a photo of street signs and send by MMS to a server 2D BarcodesSlide 35
Tech: Lamposts Based Last Mile , a British organization arrangements to offer Internet & LBS utilizing road lampposts … A glimmer memory will be introduced inside the lampposts and store information about nearby bars, shops. Fetched: about £500 per lamppostSlide 36
Tech: Hybrid Solutions Based Improve viability Extends the scope of an answer e.g. AGPS Common Hybrids EOTD/AGPS Cell ID/AGPS Benefits of both frameworks acknowledged expanding the precision and accessibility of any single techniqueSlide 37
Tech: RF Fingerprint Based Pinpointing remote customers makes it less demanding to secure and oversee remote LANs WLANs ordinarily have utilized nearest get to point (nearest AP) or triangulation advancements to track area RF fingerprinting enhances by checking the impacts that a building or individuals will have on a RF signal - qualities, for example, reflection , weakening and multi-waySlide 38
Tech: RF Fingerprint BasedSlide 39
Range Of Coverage 5 m AGPS,GPS, GPS Hybrids 100 m EOTD TDOA, AOA 300 m Cell ID + TA 500 m Cell ID 1000+mSlide 40
Major Technologies TableSlide 41
Applications Network Optimization In-Car & Personal Navigation and wayfinding Emergency (E911) Monitoring movement stream utilizing gadget area & streamlining Automated Mapping Family Tracking/Find-A-Friend Find the Nearest Store/place Tourist Information/Automated Guide Live open transport data Games Fleet Management Location-based Billing Demographic Statistics Target Marketing Other applicationsSlide 42
LBS based recreationsSlide 43
Game: Glofun RayGun Location: US Target: Ghost-Hunting! Utilization of GPS for area of playerSlide 44
Game: SS+K Conqwest Location: 5 urban communities in the USA Team-based fortune chase in the urban wilderness 5 groups hunting down fortune as "printed codes" – 2d standardized identifications that can be caught by phonecam 1 code=1$. To begin with group to discover $5000 worth codes wins and acquires a $5000 grant for their school…Slide 45
Game: Blisterent Swordfish GPS based amusement You play against a virtual school of Swordfish See where\'s the closest school of virtual fishSlide 46
Game: Blisterent Torpedo Bay A-GPS based diversion No GPS gathering? - Predictive situating … Use of genuine guide 360 degrees viewSlide 47
Game: NewtGames Mogi Location: Tokyo, Japan GPS based Pick up virtual things spread all in all of Japan At a scope of 400m, you\'re ready to gather a thingSlide 48
Game: Mikoishi GunSlingers Location: Singapore Cell-ID based Multiplayer shooting amusementSlide 49
HP Labs City Tags Location: Bristol, UK iPaq PocketPC with GPS , Wifi required Social cooperation: Tag individuals When got labeled, need to discover a companion to free youSlide 50
GeoCaching Take something from the reserve Leave something in the store Write about it in the logbookSlide 51
Developer Toolkits Chips: HammerHead TI Intel APIs: Sun J2ME Location API Qualcomm BREW LBS APISlide 53
Chips Market "The portable GPS semiconductor business sector is relied upon to surpass 180 million units in 2008 … " Will Strauss, president of Forward Concepts [ http://www10.edacafe.com/nbc/articles/view_article.php?section=ICNews&articleid=223846 ]Slide 54
HammerHead: PMB 2520 Single chip arrangement A-GPS Implementation Size: 80 mm 2 Low PowerSlide 55
TI Chip: NaviLink 4.0 GPS5300 Single chip arrangement Smallest A-GPS (50 mm 2 ) Low Power, Power Management Production: 2Q, 2006Slide 56
TI Chip: NaviLink 4.0 GPS5300Slide 57
Intel\'s Plans "Scratch pad chips will probably bolster area based administrations by 2006, Intel says. " PCWorld [http://www.itworld.com/Comp/2085/041025pentiumm/]Slide 58
SUN J2ME LBS Location API for J2ME (JSR 179) An arrangement of generi
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