Last CONTROL ELEMENTSlide 2
FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT The last control component alter the measure of vitality/mass goes into or out from procedure as charged by the controller The normal vitality wellspring of conclusive control components are: Electric Pneumatic HydraulicSlide 3
ELECTRIC FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT Electric current/voltage Solenoid Stepping Motor DC Motor AC MotorSlide 4
CHANGING CURRENT/VOLTAGE Current or voltage can be effectively changed to modify the stream of vitality goes into the procedure e.g. in warming procedure or in rate control Heater components are frequently utilized as gadget to keep the temperature over the surrounding temperature. Vitality supplied by the radiator component is W = i 2 rt (i=current, r=resistance, t=time) Motor is regularly utilized as gadget to control the rateSlide 5
CHANGING CURRENT/VOLTAGE Using Potentiometer Amplifier Ward Leonard framework Switch (on-off activity)Slide 6
Changing Current/Voltage Using Rheostat I = V/(R 1 +R 2 ) Power at rheostat P 1 =I 2 R 1 Power at warmer P 2 =I 2 R 2 Disadvantage loss of force at Rheostat Heater R 1 V R 2 ISlide 7
Example of Heating componentsSlide 8
Changing Current/Voltage Using Amplifier Potentiometer V + Heater enhancer R 1 V R 2 V − Disadvantage loss of force at potentiometer (little) and at AmplifierSlide 9
Changing Current/Voltage Using Ward Leonard System Introduced by Harry Ward Leonard in 1891 Use an engine to turn a generator at steady speed The yield of generator voltage is balanced by changing the excitation voltage Small change in excitation voltage cause vast change in generator voltage Able to deliver extensive variety of voltage (0 to 3000V) Ward Leonard framework is well known framework to control the rate of enormous DC engine until 1980\'s Now a days semi conductors switches replaces this frameworkSlide 10
Changing Current/Voltage Using Ward Leonard System excitation voltage MOTOR GENERATORSlide 11
Changing Current/Voltage Using Switch The switch is shut and opened over and over No force misfortune at Switch shut V L Switch V LOAD V L t Switch openedSlide 12
DUTY CYCLE V L V T is period time run of the mill in millisecond request (fix) T on is switch on time (flexible) T off is switch off time Duty Cycle is: (T on/T) 100% T on T off T obviously we can not utilize mechanical changes to bear on this assignment, electronic changes to be utilized. E.g. Transistor, Thyristor, or IGBT This strategies is regularly called as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)Slide 13
SOLENOID When the loop is stimulated the center will be pulled in center curl center curl SOLENOIDSlide 14
SOLENOID When the loop is empowered the center will be pulled in V SIMULATESlide 15
SOLENOID When the loop is invigorated the center will be pulled in V SIMULATESlide 16
SOLENOID Rotary solenoid Tubular solenoid Open edge solenoidSlide 17
Solenoid Usage pushing catches, hitting keys on a piano, Open shut Valve, Heavy obligation contactor hopping robots and so onSlide 19
STEPPING MOTOR The top electromagnet (1) is killed, and the right electromagnet (2) is empowered, pulling the closest teeth somewhat to one side. This outcomes in a turn of 3.6° in this illustration. The top electromagnet (1) is turned on, pulling in the closest teeth of an apparatus molded iron rotor. With the teeth adjusted to electromagnet 1, they will be marginally counterbalanced from electromagnetSlide 20
STEPPING MOTOR The left electromagnet (4) is empowered, turning again by 3.6°. The base electromagnet (3) is stimulated; another 3.6° revolution happens. At the point when the top electromagnet (1) is again empowered, the teeth in the sprocket will have pivoted by one tooth position; since there are 25 teeth, it will find a way to make a full revolution in this illustration.Slide 21
STEPPING MOTOR Practical venturing engine can be controlled for full stride and half stride. Basic normal stride size is 1.8 o for full stride and 0.9 0 for half stride Full stride is proficient by invigorating 2 nearby electromagnet all the while. Half stride is expert by empowering 1 electromagnet at once.Slide 22
Stepping engineSlide 23
DC Motor The brushSlide 24
DC MotorSlide 25
Practical DC Motors Every DC engine has six fundamental parts – hub, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. For a little engine the magnets is produced using perpetual magnetSlide 26
2 post engine AnimateSlide 27
2 shaft engine AnimateSlide 28
2 post engine AnimateSlide 29
2 post engine AnimateSlide 30
2 post engine AnimateSlide 31
2 shaft engine AnimateSlide 32
2 shaft engine AnimateSlide 33
2 shaft engine AnimateSlide 34
2 shaft engine proceed with AnimateSlide 35
3 post DC engines 1 The curl for every shafts are associated serially. The commutator comprise of 3 segment, thus one loop will be completely empowered and the others will be incompletely invigorated. 2 3 − +Slide 36
3 shaft DC engines The commutator and the curl is masterminded in a manner that the extremity of every post is as indicated quicken nextSlide 37
3 shaft DC engines The commutator and the loop is orchestrated in a manner that the extremity of every post is as demonstrated energize nextSlide 38
3 shaft DC engines The commutator and the curl is organized in a manner that the extremity of every post is as indicated enliven nextSlide 39
3 shaft DC engines The commutator and the curl is organized in a manner that the extremity of every post is as demonstrated vitalize nextSlide 40
DC engines As the rotor is pivoting, back emf (E a ) will be created, the speedier the rotor turn the higher E an and the littler I a . The beginning current of engines will be much higher then the rating current. engine I an E a VSlide 41
DC engines For enormous engines the magnet is produced using loop and center. The present streaming in the loop is called I f and the present streaming in the armature is called I a . The armature winding and the field winding are associated with a typical force supply The armature winding and the field winding are frequently associated in arrangement, parallel, or compound. The torque trademark will be distinctive for every association. The figure demonstrates a parallel association Field winding Armature windingSlide 42
SERIES DC MOTOR Field and armature winding are arrangement associated, this kind of engine is called arrangement DC engineSlide 43
DC engines Field and armature winding are parallel associated, this sort of engine is called shunt DC engineSlide 44
DC MOTOR Compound DC engine is DC engine having 2 field winding the first is associated parallel to the armature winding and the other is associated arrangementSlide 45
DC MOTOR Torque : T = KΦIa K is a steady Φ attractive flux I an is armature current Magnetic flux is consistent on the off chance that it is from changeless magnet It is rely on upon the I f in the event that it is delivered by currentSlide 46
DC MOTOR TORQUE-SPEED CURVE Torque : T = KΦIaSlide 47
SERIES DC MOTOR TORQUE-SPEED CURVE Torque : T = KΦIa T= KI a 2Slide 48
SHUNT DC MOTOR TORQUE-SPEED CURVE Torque : T = KΦIaSlide 49
COMPOUND DC MOTOR TORQUE-SPEED CURVESlide 50
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR The turning field. While substituting current is connected to the field loop the attractive field will likewise rotating. Thusly the perpetual magnet will pivot o 311 - 311 ~Slide 51
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR The turning field. While rotating current is connected to the field loop the attractive field will likewise substituting. Along these lines the lasting magnet will pivot o 311 - 311 ~Slide 52
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR The turning field. While rotating current is connected to the field curl the attractive field will likewise exchanging. In this manner the changeless magnet will turn o 311 - 311 ~Slide 53
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR The pivoting field. While substituting current is connected to the field loop the attractive field will likewise rotating. In this manner the lasting magnet will turn o 311 - 311 ~Slide 54
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR The pivoting field. While substituting current is connected to the field loop the attractive field will likewise exchanging. In this way the changeless magnet will pivot o 311 - 311 ~Slide 55
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR The turning field. While substituting current is connected to the field loop the attractive field will likewise rotating. Along these lines the perpetual magnet will pivot o 311 - 311 ~Slide 56
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR This engine has 2 posts If the recurrence of the current is f hertz (cycle/s) then the rpm n = f rps n = (120f)/p rpm Where p is the quantity of the shafts o 311 - 311 ~Slide 57
N S SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR 4 shaft engineSlide 58
N S R S T THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR S T R S T 4 post 3 Φ engineSlide 59
SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTORSlide 60
R S T SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR USING EXTERNAL EXITER The attractive flux of changeless magnet is low for a greater engine we need to utilize remotely left attractive fieldSlide 61
ASYNCHRONOUS AC MOTOR When rather than left, the rotor loop is shorted a prompted current will be produced and the rotor will be polarized and begin to turn. The speedier the velocity the littler the instigated current lastly the present will stop at synchronous pace thus does the revolution This engine will turn at rate less the its synchronous pivot that is the reason it called nonconcurrent engine This engine is additionally called enlistment engine I promptedSlide 62
Calculating Motor Speed A squirrel confine acceptance engine is a steady speed gadget. It can\'t work for any time span at velocities underneath those appeared on the nameplate without risk of wearing out. To Calculate the velocity of an acceptance engine , apply this equation: S rpm = 120 x F P S rpm = synchronous cycles every moment. 120 = steady F = supply recurrence (in cycle
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