LEAD SMELTING International Review .

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Goals. Foundation of LeadMining/Smelting and ecological effectsDemographics , Statistics and UsesEnvironment and Health Effects Stakeholders and Policies/Guidelines Recommendations. Lead in Galena MineralLead Mine pit.
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LEAD SMELTING International Review Nicole Fobi, MD Internal Medicine Residency Program Morehouse School Of Medicine Atlanta, Georgia Mentor: Dr. Mary Jean Brown Peter Kowalski, MPH NCEH/ATSDR/CDC, Atlanta, GA "The discoveries and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally scattered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and ought not be interpreted to speak to any organization assurance or approach."

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Objectives Background of Lead Mining/Smelting and natural impacts Demographics , Statistics and Uses Environment and Health Effects Stakeholders and Policies/Guidelines Recommendations

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Lead in Galena Mineral Lead Mine pit

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"Impacting operation" to shape mine pit

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Truck in open mine pit

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Mining and Smelting "Bar and Ball" machine and squashed Galena from lead mine The galena is taken to a factory and pounded in a "bar and ball" machine

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Large, revealed trucks transport pulverized galena to the lead smeltering plant Dust takes off of Truck utilizes a lead-corrosive battery

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Mining and Smelting Crushed Galena put into suspension tank with water and Dithiophosphate synthetic Chemical response makes foam, isolating lead from different metals (sulfides). Lead sticks to foam which solidifies and is skimmed of bringing about 90% lead think Lead simmered, shapes bunches called sinter which is liquefied with coke (produced using coal) and impacted with hot air Result from concoction response is lead bullion

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Froth buoyancy cell Lead foam holding up to be skimmed off

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Statistics Global Demand 6.98 million tons in 2004, 7.13 million tons in 2005 US biggest client (1.47 million tons) China next biggest (1.18 million tons) expanded by over 8% more than 2004-5, and multiplied since 2000 Rises sought after estimate for Germany, Czech Republic and India

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Statistics Supply Sources 3.15 million tons from essential mining in 2004 Sources in U.S. Australia, Canada, China, Ireland, Mexico, Peru and Portugal Remainder from auxiliary reusing Recycling rates higher for created nations (60 to 70%) and bring down for creating nations (< 30%)

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Statistics Major purifying organizations: 25 smelters and refineries in Europe, 23 in North America and 18 in China represented 66% of world generation in 2005 Secondary and cabin purifying organizations should be tended to !! CRU

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Environment and Health Material extra is called Tailings made out of: . Wastewater . Dithiophosphate . Zinc metal . Sulfides Garbage from diggers disposed of on scene too EPA

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Lead polluting close-by stream Accumulation of tailings Waste water

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Man-made lake loaded with tainted water

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Mining exercises leave colossal openings in scene Holes filled in by the mining organization ordinarily with material containing tailings and waste Environment and Health

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Devastating land impacts

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Environment and Health Exposure Pathway Current Former Air Soil Water _ +

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Environment and Health - Over introduction to lead is the main source of work environment illness!!!! - Lead mine/smelter specialists might be presented to lead when: 1. Taking care of/cleaning the tidy accumulation framework 2. Disgracefully kept up gathering frameworks 3. Settled clean in the territory 4. Fluid containing lead that may have sprinkled onto a specialist or a protest and has transformed into lead tidy 5. Bringing tainted apparel home OSHA

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Occupations That Expose Workers to Lead Removal of lead coatings striping of old paint, annihilation of old structures, home redesign Heating, machining or splashing lead items radiator and battery repair, welding, cutting, machining, pounding lead composites, repair or evacuation of water lines utilizing lead funneling/bind, circuit repairmen, recolored glass window repair, ammo Making of lead items lead-corrosive battery, coat, earthenware, link, recolored glass, paint/ink, blending/weighing of lead powders, lead sheeting, ammo, glass blowing, lodging and development

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Health Consequences of Lead Exposure Most people are not enough educated of the wellbeing dangers!

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Blood Lead Levels Associated with Adverse Health Effects Lead Concentration in Blood ( g/dL) Adults Children 150 Encephalopathy Death Nephropathy 100 Encephalopathy Frank Anemia Nephropathy Frank Anemia Male Reproductive Effects Colic 50 Hemoglobin Synthesis and Female Reproductive Effects 40 Nerve Conduction Velocity Hemoglobin Synthesis 30 Elevated Blood Pressure Vitamin D Metabolism Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin (men) 20 Nerve Conduction Velocity Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin (ladies) Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Vitamin D Metabolism(?) 10 Developmental Toxicity IQ, Hearing, Growth Transplacental Transfer Note: = expanded capacity and = diminished capacity. Source: ATSDR, 1992

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Multi-country Organizations NGOs Country Health Agencies Lead Industries Communities Stakeholders

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Stakeholders In creating nations, attention to the general wellbeing effect of introduction to lead is becoming yet moderately few of these nations have presented strategies and controls for fundamentally fighting the issue.

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Stakeholders need to join together and team up systemically to diminish outflows, remediate soil sullying, and work a feasible checking framework.

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WHO Public wellbeing measures to lessen and avert introduction to lead : 1. Eliminating lead added substances in energizes and expelling lead from petrol when is practicable. 2. Decreasing and eliminating the utilization of toxic paints. 3. Wiping out the utilization of lead in nourishment compartments. Notice of World Health Organization, 2000, 78 Ref No. 0686 Environmental lead presentation: a general medical issue of worldwide measurements

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4. Distinguishing, diminishing and taking out lead utilized as a part of extra solutions and beautifying agents. 5. Minimizing the dissolving of lead in water treatment and water appropriation Systems. 6. Enhancing control over introduction to lead in working environments. 7. Enhancing distinguishing proof of populaces at high danger of introduction on the premise of checking frameworks. Notice of World Health Organization, 2000, 78 Ref No. 0686 Environmental lead presentation: a general medical issue of worldwide measurements

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Environmental lead introduction: a general medical issue of worldwide measurements 8. Enhancing strategies of wellbeing danger appraisal. 9. Enhancing advancement of comprehension and attention to introduction to lead. 10. Expanding accentuation on satisfactory sustenance, human services and thoughtfulness regarding financial conditions that may compound the impacts of lead. 11. Creating worldwide observing and analy­tical quality control programs. Announcement of World Health Organization, 2000, 78 Ref No. 0686

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WHO - Lead Air Quality Guidelines for lead in air will be founded on the grouping of lead in blood. A basic level of lead in blood of 100 μg/l is proposed. (based gathering midpoints) Chapter 6.7 Lead Air Quality Guidelines - Second Edition WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2001 13

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WHO - Lead Air Quality Guidelines 1. Presently measured gauge blood lead levels of insignificant anthropogenic starting point most likely range 10–30 μg/l. 2. Different global master bunches - soonest unfriendly impacts of lead in populaces of youthful youngsters start at 100–150 μg/l 3. Inward breath of airborne lead is a huge course of introduction for grown-ups yet is of less hugeness for youthful kids, for whom different pathways of presentation, for example, ingested lead are by and large more vital. Part 6.7 Lead Air Quality Guidelines - Second Edition WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2001 13

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WHO - Lead Air Quality Guidelines 4. 1 μg lead for every m3 air straightforwardly contributes approx 19 μg lead for each liter blood in kids and around 16 μg per liter blood in grown-ups 5. In average circumstances, an expansion of lead in air likewise adds to expanded lead take-up by circuitous ecological pathways - 1 μg lead for every m3 air would add to 50 μg lead for every liter blood. 6. To avert additionally increments of lead in soils and resulting increments in the introduction of future eras, air lead levels ought to be kept as low as could reasonably be expected. Section 6.7 Lead Air Quality Guidelines - Second Edition WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2001 13

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WHO - Lead Air Quality Guidelines 7. Endeavors be made to guarantee that no less than 98% of an uncovered populace, have blood lead levels that don\'t surpass 100 μg/l. - The middle blood lead level would not surpass 54 μg/l. - The yearly normal lead level in air ought not surpass 0.5 μg/m3. - This proposition depends on the presumption that the furthest reaches of non-anthropogenic lead in blood is 30 μg/l. Part 6.7 Lead Air Quality Guidelines - Second Edition WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2001 13

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WHO - Lead Air Quality Guidelines LOAEL : most minimal watched unfriendly impact levels ALA: Delta Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydrate FEP: Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin

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World Bank Lead and Zinc Smelting: Industry division rules The key creation and control rehearses that will prompt to consistence with discharges prerequisites : Give inclination to the blaze purifying procedure where fitting. 2. Pick oxygen improvement forms that al­low higher SO2 focuses in Smelter gasses to help with sulfur

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