Li2 Language variety .

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Today\'s subjects. Sex versus genderLinguistic impressions of social demeanors concerning genderGender-based phonetic contrasts. Characteristic versus linguistic sex. innate sexual orientation (sex) ? socially-built gender3rd social sexual orientation in Oman: gay menSome Native American gatherings recognize 4 social genderslanguages might linguistically encode either sort of sex, or neitherNeither: Armenian, Turkish, Per
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Li2 Language variety sexual orientation

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Today\'s points Sex versus sex Linguistic impressions of social states of mind concerning sex Gender-based etymological contrasts

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Inherent versus syntactic sexual orientation intrinsic sex ( sex )  socially-developed sex third social sex in Oman: gay men Some Native American gatherings recognize 4 social sexes dialects may linguistically encode either sort of sex, or Neither: Armenian, Turkish, Persian, Abkhaz Inherent: Tukanoan; English (for people) Social: English tongues

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Linguistic impressions of social dispositions concerning sex 2 fundamental speculations of dialect/sex relationship Culture ��  dialect If a culture is sexist, the dialect will be as well. Dialect ��  culture Language itself can decide sexual orientation relations e.g. dialects with no linguistic sex Gender notability in morphology and vocabulary 

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Gender in morphology things of occupation are at the same time manly and nonexclusive; female terms are checked: sculptress, on-screen character, usherette, Lady X… NB in steward(ess) steward is formally/truly unmarked, however attendant is semantically/even-mindedly unmarked special cases : masseuse , dowager, nurture, needle worker, male ho duck, dairy animals, goose, moorhen Armenian skesrayr is gotten from skesur , inverse of typical m  f design since relative is all the more socially striking, since spouse dependably detests her? ch áirman versus mílkmàn alluding to female? Unmarked/default sexual orientation translation of things with no obvious stamping: doll… Pronouns: utilization of he versus they for unbiased solitary pronoun—now and then they is unmistakably better: which Austin Powers star made THEIR motion picture make a big appearance in a film featuring Elizabeth Taylor? decisions: Mike Myers, Michael York, Elizabeth Hurley "their" is required here keeping in mind the end goal to abstain from indicating sexual orientation NB this "solitary they" is utilized just with uncertain referents *Cathy i hurt their i hand

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Gender notability in vocabulary "Impartial" marks for men and ladies female names: Miss, Mrs., Ms. male labels: Mr. suggestion: more essential for lady to appear if she\'s wedded Historical results of male and female sets Master : paramour Hussy, vixen Slang for (unbridled) men and ladies 

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Slang for indiscriminate men and ladies Men: creep, cocksucker/(Aus.) chicken mystery, companion, horndog, hornytoad, John, lech, mack, mother lover (?), pimp, playboy, player, prostitute (?), stud, sugardaddy Total: 20 Women: bimbo, bitch, chick, floozy, mistress, hooker, seductress, prostitute, slut, slag, skank, tart, tramp, trap, trollop, vixen, prostitute/ho… Total: 220 Sample from the Thesaurus of American Slang

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Gender-based etymological contrasts NB what takes after are gathering special circulations (speakers from two gatherings both utilize an arrangement of structures, however one gathering utilizes them all the more regularly) as opposed to gathering elite examples, in which speakers from one gathering utilize a frame, while speakers from another gathering don\'t.

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Do the sexual orientations really vary semantically? Conventional research (all by guys, in "male" scholarly atmosphere) says YES Labov, Trudgill, Lakoff, Eckert… Predominant assessment of sex analysts in last 10-20 years (all by females, in "women\'s activist" research atmosphere) says NO all proof is episodic, concentrates on contrasts as opposed to likenesses, makes falsely solid sexual orientation classes From latest Linguistics Department meeting: "no logical confirmation for sex based semantic contrasts" Is there any logical/true blue proof for sex based phonetic contrasts? Yes, as we\'ll see particularly for non-accepted sexes…

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Glasgow/s/From Stuart-Smith et al. 2000 again The dissipate plot demonstrates the appropriation of two estimations (\'mean\'(X)/\'spread\'(Y)) computed from the general vitality range of/s/at the midpoint of the fricative. The mean esteem mirrors the general pitch of the fricative, which is relied upon to be higher for female than male speakers. Here females are higher than guys by and large (all guys are beneath 6000Hz), yet there are anomalies, specifically 5 young ladies, including every one of the four common laborers young ladies, who group inside the male range. This exhibits the verbalization of/s/is not just reliant on natural limitations of sex, but rather can be finely controlled to flag sexual orientation and social gathering enrollment.

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Vocabulary 1: Japanese men\'s women\'s 1 st person formal watakusi watakusi watasi atakusi plain boku watasi atasi deprecatory/ ore ø casual 2d person formal anata anata plain kimi anata anta anta deprecatory/ omae ø casual kisama Other cases: Lakota, Chukchee…

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Vocabulary 2: English Color terms Girlfriend (vocative) Cute Pee/piss Fart, take a dump, tie up…

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Gender-based phonetic contrasts, section 2 Traditional variationist contrasts

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Change towards sexually transmitted disease lg drove by ladies Spanish lingo of Ucieda has posttonic [u] where Spanish has [o] Ucieda trabaj u : Castilian (= Std) trabaj o "work" This vowel has been bringing down in Ucieda as a convenience to the Castilian shape. The stature of this vowel recognizes: those occupied with agribusiness versus mechanical area those occupied with customary mountain horticulture versus the more cutting edge dairy cultivating Women (most recognizably in horticulture/cultivating) lead this change. Holmquist\'s investigation: agrarian life is ugly to ladies, who partake in the homestead work and do the housework as well. Thus ladies are faster than men to leave the homestead, and snappier to flag their separation from their present lifestyle in their discourse. Holmquist, Jonathan. 1985. Social corresponds of an etymological variable: A review in a Spanish town. Dialect in Society 14:191-203.

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Jocks and Burnouts Eckert 1989 investigation of a rural secondary school in Detroit, concentrating on two social gatherings: muscle heads : white collar class bkgd, foundation, extracurricular exercises, school-based social life, plan to leave burnouts : average workers bkgd, neighborhood companions, mean to stay, professional preparing Eckert, Penelope. 1989. Muscle heads and burnouts: Social classes and personality in the secondary school. New York: Teachers College Press.

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Gender asymmetry by age (Labov) Women lead men in most semantic changes in advance that have been contemplated by quantitative techniques (Labov 1990). The figure underneath shows M and F designs by age for the devoicing of (j) in calle, llame, and so forth in the Spanish of Buenos Aires (Wolf and Jiménez 1979).  Women demonstrate higher % devoicing from the start; guys fall behind. The spotted bolts recommend, also, this is a slack of one era: Males 15-24 estimated the estimations of ladies 38-55 12 year old guys have values in the scope of ladies 24-35.

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Non-accepted sexual orientations

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Non-authoritative sexes Intonation Stereotypically, female discourse incorporates a more prominent pitch extend than male discourse (McConnell-Ginet 1983, Henton 1989) What about non-sanctioned sexes? Female Stereotypical lesbian discourse incorporates a restricted pitch go and by and large level sound examples (Queen 1997) Disconfirmed tentatively by Waksler 2001 Male Schuler 2003: noteworthy relationship between\'s 95% pitch extend, speaker introduction, and audience rating Waksler, Rachelle. 2001. Pitch range and ladies\' sexual introduction. Word 52.1:69-77.

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Influence of sexual introduction on vowel creation Pierrehumbert et al 2004 Phonetic investigation of vowel generation in gay, lesbian, androgynous (GLB), and hetero speakers Differences in the acoustic attributes of vowels were found as a component of sexual introduction: Lesbian and cross-sexual ladies delivered less fronted/u/and/a/than hetero ladies. Gay men delivered a more extended vowel space than hetero men. In any case, the vowels of GLB speakers were not for the most part moved toward vowel designs regular of the inverse sex. These outcomes are conflicting with the guess that intrinsic organic components affect the discourse of gay men and a comprehensively masculinizing impact on the discourse of lesbian/androgynous ladies. They are steady with the possibility that intrinsic natural elements impact GLB discourse designs in a roundabout way by bringing on specific selection of certain discourse designs normal for the inverse sex.

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Gender-based phonetic contrasts, section 3 Pragmatics

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Question labels Showing solidarity : His representations are very static by correlation, right? Showing vulnerability: You were missing a week ago, would you say you weren\'t? (Coates/Cameron 1989: 82) This specific articulation could be angry with the correct sound Men utilize address labels all the more regularly to express instability while ladies utilize them to a great extent to encourage correspondence (Holmes 1992:319). Coates, Jennifer/Cameron, Deborah. (eds.) (1989): Women in Their Speech Communities. London. Holmes, Janet (1984): "Women\'s Language: A Functional Approach". General Linguistics 24/3: 149-178.

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Interruptions Eakins/Eakins 1978: status is by all accounts a consider the example of interferences. Guys started a larger number of interferences than females in their investigation of workforce gatherings, however… there was an unmistakable positioning along status lines. The seat of the office endured minimal number of interferences Nevertheless, the most intruded on individual was a lady. In any case, Holmes 1992: in specialist tolerant discussions female specialists were interfered with more frequently than male doctors in business associations, men however not ladies had a tendency to rule the collaborations And West 1998: investigation of connection amongst specialists and patients: female doctors were intruded on more regularly by patients of all societal position bunches than male doctors. Sex of Physician # of Interruptions by Physicians by Patients # of Patients   Male 188 6

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