Life in the Polar Districts.

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Category: Animals / Pets
Difficulties to Life at the Poles. Plants and Animals must adjust to:ColdDroughtShort developing season Long days, Long nightsMore as of late, little changes in atmosphere can mean emotional changes for life at the shafts. Guide of Arctic Region. Essential Arctic Biomes . Tundra. Taiga. .
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Life in the Polar Regions A short study of plants and creatures found in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions

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Challenges to Life at the Poles Plants and Animals must adjust to: Cold Drought Short developing season Long days, Long evenings More as of late, little changes in atmosphere can mean sensational changes for life at the shafts

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Map of Arctic Region

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Basic Arctic Biomes Tundra Taiga

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Tundra Tussock Sedge, diminutive person bush, greenery Low Shrub Sedge grass, greenery wetland Low grass, forbs, low bush

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Tundra Plants Purple Saxifrage ( Saxifraga oppositifolia) Arctic Willow ( Salix arctica) Reindeer Lichen/Caribou Moss ( Cladonia rangiferina) Arctic Moss ( Calliergon giganteum)

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Tundra Plant Facts Often recreate by rootstocks or runner Grow in clusters to make microclimates May blossom from buds that are one to two years of age Seed may sprout and develop while still appended to parent plant Similar to forsake plants, elevated parts lessened for root mass, bigger roots fit for putting sufficiently away vitality and minerals to permit moment development in spring

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Taiga White and Black Spruce Picea glauca , Picea mariana Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana Balsam Fir, Abies balsamia

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Taiga Ecology Lower plant and creature differing qualities contrasted with tundra Often succeeds tundra over drawn out stretches of time or because of evolving atmosphere (quickened) Typically needle leaf plants adjusted to icy and dry spell

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Common Arctic Birds Arctic tern ( Sterna paradisea) Common Eider ( Somateria mollissima ) Snow Goose ( Chen caerulescens ) Tundra Swan ( Cygnus columbianus) Herring gull ( Larus argentatus) Alcids (Guillemot, Puffin, Auk, Murre) Ptarmigan ( Lagopus spp.) Gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) Snowy Owl ( Nyctea scandiaca ) Common Redpoll ( Carduelis flammea )

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Less Common Arctic Birds Loons (regular, pacific, Red charged, yellow charged) Plovers (American brilliant, Black bellied) Sandpipers e.g. Rosy Turnstone ( Arenaria interpres) Sandhill Crane ( Grus canadensis ) Northern Fulmar ( Fulmaris glacialis ) Laysan Albatross ( Diomedea immutabilis)

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Birds by Habitat Marine/Coastal – auks, puffins, gulls, terns, nut cases, ducks, geese, swans Terrestrial – sparrows (basically tundra), owls, birds of prey, hawks, hawks , plovers, ravens

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Spotlight on.. Gyrfalcon one of the main feathered creatures to winter in the Arctic, discovered just above treeline, bring forth ahead of schedule to "outhunt" different winged animals of prey, chase by flying low to ground and pursuing prey

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Tundra (or Whistling) Swan Before ballpoint or wellspring pens, the plumes of the shrieking swans were a typical execute for composing. A huge number of these winged animals were slaughtered for their plumes and the shrieking swan was driven practically to eradication. In any case, on account of their disengagement, Arctic populaces have endured.

Slide 16 Herring Gull One of the bigger individuals from the family, monogamous, settling on rough coastlines, cosmopolitan bolstering propensities, have a decent memory for predators

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USFWS Arctic Tern Only species relocating from cold to Antarctic, live in extensive provinces +100 sets, can plunge up to 10 meters to nourish. Live 30 years or more

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Migration of Arctic Tern Direct flight = ~6165 miles Long separation trip between ~late-July and October by an Arctic Tern united as chick

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Puffin – surface plunges to swim after little fish, discovering and holding in its bill until it has a full load – known not conveyed 61 fish in a solitary trek. Masterminds angle transversely in its bill utilizing its rough tongue to hold against the top of its mouth while getting the following fish. Top of its mouth has rearward-directing spines toward hold the fish. Not agile flyers, but rather can achieve rates of up to 88 km/hour. At the point when touching base ashore frequently wind up accident landing! Focus on..

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Common Redpoll (Finch) Smallest flying creature to overwinter in Arctic. (albeit some do move as far south as Central U.S.) Some breed as far north as Ellesmere Island. In the winter it makes due by occupying the passages of lemmings, which keep running along the surface of the ground under the snow, where it is shielded from unforgiving winds and can discover seeds to eat.

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American Golden Plover Migration of American Golden Plover Migrates along Atlantic Flyway-stops over in New England

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Lake chub ( Couesius plumbeus ) Burbot ( lota ) Arctic lamprey ( Lampetra japonica ) Salmon (Whitefish, Trout, Arctic Grayling, Arctic Cisco, Herring, Arctic Char) Sculpins Smelt (counting argentines) Stickleback Lake sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens ) Longnose sucker ( catostomus ) Dragonfish Barracudina Bristlemouths Cods, Mora\'s and Grenadiers Daggertooth ( Anotopterus pharao )* Black scabbardfish ( Aphanopus carbo ) Eels, Slatjaw vicious ( Synaphobranchus kaupi ), longfin sawpalate, ( Serrivomer parabeani ) Eelpouts (many)* Banded gunnel ( Pholis fasciata ), Pricklebacks Atlantic hagfish ( Myxine glutinosa ) Lanternfish Haeckel\'s figment ( Harriotta haeckeli ) Lumpfish and Snailfish Alligatorfish Halibut and Flounder Sand Lance Deepwater redfish ( Sebastes mentella ) Skates Sleeper sharks (Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus) Wolffish Alaska Blackfish Arctic Fish *also found in Antarctic

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Spotlight on: Lanternfish: remote ocean fish - vertically move, have photophores – light organs – on head and body. Level of light they discharge is sufficiently low to coordinate the light originating from the surface of the ocean and hide the fish\'s nearness from predators beneath, Swim in schools so extensive sonar beats from pontoon navigational gear regularly bob off their swim bladders, giving the impression of a false sea base!

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Greenland Shark: biggest fish in northern waters, Scientific name, Somniosus microcephalus – the modest headed sleeper . Swims so gradually - regularly hard to tell regardless of whether it is alive, this enormous shark is a scrounger, shearing gigantic hunks of tissue off dead seals and whales or crunching on the remaining parts of dead fish or other marine living beings.

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Arctic Cod : most northerly scope of any marine species, swim in monstrous schools that can extend for kilometers. The littlest of the considerable number of cods, now discovered infringing on cod living space in North Atlantic. One of the final financially practical cod species.

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Arctic Char : most northerly scope of any freshwater fish on the planet, enormous morphological flexibility – going from 10-100kg, must relocate out of seas (trepidation of solidifying)

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Alaska Blackfish a kind of mudminnow, living in low-lying overgrown lakes with delicate bottoms. Capable of living without oxygen for a day and without nourishment for an entire year. Can survive temperatures of - 20 degrees C (4 F) and the complete solidifying of some body parts, including their heads, for up to a few days. Utilize a synthetic much like liquid catalyst to avert precious stone arrangement in the blood.

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Coastal/Marine Arctic Food web

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Arctic Mammals (charming macrospecies!) Whales (Beaked, Gray, Right, Sperm, White, Roqual)* Dolphins (Orca, Long-finned, White-hooked, Atlantic)* + Harbor porpoise ( phocoena ) Seals (Harbor, Harp, Hooded, Bearded, Ringed)* Walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ) Sea Otter ( Enhydra lutris) Polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) Grizzly Bear ( Ursus arctos horribilis) Caribou ( Rangifer tarandus ) Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) Arctic fox ( Alopex lagopus ) Gray wolf ( Canis lupis ) Red fox ( vulpes ) Yakut Horse Lemmings and Voles (Norway Lemming, lemmus, Brown Lemming , Lemmus sibiricus ) Arctic rabbit ( Lepus arcticus ) Shrews Arctic ground squirrel, Citellus parryi Ermine ( Mustela erminea) Least weasel ( Mustela nivalis ) Wolverine ( gulo ) * Also found in Antarctic

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Spotlight on: Caribou Four sub-species in far north. Discovered basically on tundra, spend winter in taiga. Their erratic relocation designs drove numerous local societies to group them. Have countercurrent flow like a few feathered creatures furthermore additional phosphates in their blood to expand oxygen uptake in cool temps.,,

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Lemming Smallest well evolved creature in the ice, cocoa in summer, white in winter. Try not to rest – overwinter by tunneling into passages under snow and keeping on nourishing.

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Walrus Very social – accumulate by the hundreds. Positioning built up by tusk size. While jumping, blood stream is occupied far from its skin and fat; when it lolls in the sun after a long make a plunge cool water, blood stream to the surface of the lard is expanded, permitting heat pick up.

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Arctic Fox Lung branches longer with more surface territory than calm relatives. Lung structure upgrades warming and blending of chilly breathed in air with warm breathed out air, enhancing heat protection. Lairs can have 4-12 passages and concealment to 30 sq. m (323 sq. ft.). A few lairs might be utilized for quite a long time, by numerous eras, and in the end get to be tremendous, with more than 100 doors.

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Rare Animals in Arctic Eskimo Curlew ( Numenius borealis ) (rarest of all) Allegedly, guided Columbus to the New World six centuries back, on its way to its rearing grounds on the ice tundra. Pigeon-sized, sickle-charged shorebird once a prevailing animal types in ice. Its one pound, fat-loaded body was welcomed by North American pilgrims who chased this winged creature in the 1800s for sustenance. Such a prevalent target, it was chased to close termination. Pelican gulper ( Eurypharynx pelecanoides ) a sort of eel, mouth 4 X bigger than rest of body. Trap seeker, draws prey by waving the lumin

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