Light and Photosynthesis .


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Light and Photosynthesis. Light in the Ocean Intensity Color Inherent Optical Properties Apparent Optical Properties Remote Sensing Photosynthesis Light Absorption Light Reactions Dark Reactions. I need a work study student (library work, will pay).
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Light and Photosynthesis Light in the Ocean Intensity Color Inherent Optical Properties Apparent Optical Properties Remote Sensing Photosynthesis Light Absorption Light Reactions Dark Reactions I require a work study understudy (library work, will pay) Oscar Schofield (oscar@ahab.rutgers.edu)

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For satellite remote detecting the wavelength is the way to what you need to gauge. c = l/u e = h u = hc/l

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Figure 6

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2500 m mol photons m - 2 s - 1 5.0 m mol photons m - 2 s - 1 I) Light Irradiance Intensity z 1 Ed 1 Z (meters) D z Because of Lambert Beers Law the sea is faint z 2 Ed 2 Plant life is reliant on light Lambert Beers Law Ed 2 = Ed 1 e - D z*Kd 3) The 1% light level for most of the is 100 m or less?

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Early Optics Alexander the Great

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The shade of the ocean demonstrates a lot of fluctuation from the profound violet-blue of the vast sea to degrees of green and cocoa in beach front areas. Prior to the approach of delicate optical instruments, shading was dictated by visual examination against standard reference models, for example, the Forel Ule Color scale.

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Today Robot-mounted Hyperspectral Absorption meter January 2003

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Your future will incorporate robots watching the waters for you as optical instruments are currently little

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What sort of estimations are there? Inborn Optical Properties : Those optical properties that are crucial to the bit of water, not reliant on the geometric structure of the light field. (assimilation, disseminating, lessening) Apparent Optical Properties : Those optical properties that are principal to the bit of water and are reliant on the geometric structure of the light field. (light force, reflectance)

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Why IOP Measurements? Ingestion, a shading Scattering, b clarity Beam weakening, c (transmission) a + b = c The IOPs inform us something concerning the particulate and broke up substances in the amphibian medium; how we measure them figures out what we can resolve

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Photo S. Etheridge Photo S. Etheridge Why IOP Measurements? Ingestion, a shading

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Why IOP Measurements? Ingestion, a Scattering, b clarity

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Review of IOP Theory F o F t Incident Radiant Flux Transmitted Radiant Flux No lessening

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Review of IOP Theory F o F t Incident Radiant Flux Transmitted Radiant Flux Attenuation

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F an Absorbed Radiant Flux Loss because of assimilation F o F t Incident Radiant Flux Transmitted Radiant Flux

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F b Scattered Radiant Flux Loss because of disseminating F o F t Incident Radiant Flux Transmitted Radiant Flux

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Loss because of bar weakening (retention + diffusing) F b Scattered Radiant Flux F an Absorbed Radiant Flux F o F t Incident Radiant Flux Transmitted Radiant Flux

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Conservation of brilliant flux F b Scattered Radiant Flux F an Absorbed Radiant Flux F o F t Incident Radiant Flux Transmitted Radiant Flux F o = F t + F a + F b

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 0 c dx = -  0 d F/F x Beam Attenuation Measurement Theory c = fragmentary attenuance per unit separation, constriction coefficient c = D C/D x F b c D x = - DF/F a F o F t c(x-0) = - [ ln( F x )- ln( F 0 )] c x = - [ ln( F t )- ln( F o )] c x = - ln( F t/F o ) c (m - 1 ) = (- 1/x) ln( F t/F o ) D x

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Linking VIDEO and Vertical profile with Optical Products and SwimmerVisibility Air Force Targets Real Time Video 13:40 15:40 11:40 Node A 18:20 1m 19:25 Swimmer Visibility Model REAL TIME – Camera at NODE An Optical Mooring c532 TIME Plans to return July 00 with NAVO.

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Optically-Deep Optically-Shallow Whitecaps Micro-bubbles Shallow Ocean Floor Suspended Sediments Phytoplankton Benthic Plants 1/Kd CDOM-Rich Water Collect a sign, around 95% of the sign is dictated by the air. 2) Relate the reflectance to the material science, science, and/or science in the water. R = b/(a+B b )

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0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 Absorption (1/m) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 - 0.1 wavelength (nm) Changing the relative extents of materials in the water section additionally impacts shade of the water Dissolved organics Phytoplankton

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Absorption (m - 1 ) 0 1 a490 a550 0 Backscatter (m - 1 ) 0.03 0 6 Depth (m) Depth (m) Depth (m) Depth (m) 12 b 488 b 589 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Distance (km) Distance (km) Distance (km) Distance (km)

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2 1.5 Ratio 1 b 488/b 589 a490/a550 0.5 0 5 10 Distance (km)

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That Pristine Blue NJ Water

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Courtesy of Hans Graber, Rich Garvine, Bob Chant, Andreas Munchow, Scott Glenn and Mike Crowley

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Influence of Optical Properties on Laser Performance Target 3 m Based on Surface Values

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Changes in the shade of the reflectance as the heap of material changes in the water segment. Water Leaving Radiance Reflectance

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Color changeability at numerous scales around Tasmania from CZCS picture Causes? Solid winds, solid streams, base togography, and so on. Tasmania GSFC, NASA

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0.3 0.2 phytoplankton retention (m - 1 ) 0.1 0 400 500 600 700 wavelength (nm)

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0.08 chl a chl b 0.06 chl c PSC PPC 0.04 assimilation coefficient (m 2 mg - 1 ) 0.02 0.0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 wavelength (nm)

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chl c chl b phycobilins chl b chl a chl a carotenoids chl a - chl c - carotenoids 20 1.25 chl a - chl b - carotenoids chl a - phycobilins Spectral Irradiance ( m W cm - 2 nm - 1 ) 1.0 15 0.75 Relative Absorption 10 0.50 5 0.25 0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Wavelength (nm)

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Chlorophyll a : all phytoplankton (utilized as a measure of fixations) Chlorophyll b : green growth Chlorophyll c : chromophytes (dinoflagellates, diatoms, coccolithophorrids) Carotenoids : fucoxanthin (dinoflagellates, diatoms, coccolithophorrids) 19\'- hexanoyfucoxanthin (coccolithophorrids) alloxanthin (cryptophytes) peridinin (dinoflagellates)

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Photosynthesis Heat Fluorescence Energy increased Different Excitation Orbitals In a particle Energy hv Ground State

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CO 2 Q A Fd CH 2 O Fluorescence Q B 2H + e - PQH 2 RC II RC I P680 + 2H + z Light-Harvesting Pigments O 2 + 4H + 2H 2 O PAR

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NUCLEUS LHC quality Repressor proteins Days to Weeks P Q a LHC PH Minutes to Hours CYTOSOL CHLOROPLAST H + 1/2CO 2 1/2CH 2 O + 3/2ADP + 3/2Pi 6H + NADPH H + NADP + 3/2ATP + 3/2Pi 3/2ADP + 3/2Pi F d 2H + 2H + STROMA Q b F a/F b CF 1 PQ 2 x e - PQ Q b PQ Q b F x PQ D1 e - THYLAKOID MEMBRANE D2 ATP synthase complex A 0 Cytochrome b 6 - f-Fe nn Pheo Photosystem II Photosystem I e - CF 0 P700 P680 PC/cyt c 6 e - 4Mn Yz fluorescence 2H + 2H + 1/2 O 2 + 2H + H 2 O THYLAKOID LUMEN

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3.5 0.08 Pmax 0.06 2.5 quantum yield of oxygen development 0.04 1.5 oxygen advancement 0.02 0.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 light power

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Biomass Nutrients Photosynthesis Irradiance Intensity I k Z (meters)

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