Lipids .


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lipids. Mrs. Chaitali Maitra Assistant professor Dept. of biochemistry PCMS&RC. TO MY STUDENTS HERE I HAVE TRIED TO SIMPLIFY THE HUGE SUBJECT WITH ANIMATIONS, DIAGRAMS, FLOW CHARTS & RELEVENT MCQs. DIFFERENT TEXT BOOKS AND REFERENCE BOOKS HAVE BEEN USED FOR PREPARING THE CONTENTS.
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lipids Mrs. Chaitali Maitra Assistant teacher Dept. of natural chemistry PCMS&RC

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TO MY STUDENTS HERE I HAVE TRIED TO SIMPLIFY THE HUGE SUBJECT WITH ANIMATIONS, DIAGRAMS, FLOW CHARTS & RELEVENT MCQs. Distinctive TEXT BOOKS AND REFERENCE BOOKS HAVE BEEN USED FOR PREPARING THE CONTENTS. REMEMBERTHESE SLIDES ARE NOT THE SUBSTITUTE OF YOUR TEXT BOOKS ANIMATIONS AND DIAGRAMS ARE COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT WEBSITE SOLELY FOR EDUCATION PURPOSE.

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Lipids are non-polar (hydrophobic) mixes, dissolvable in natural solvents . Arrangement of Lipids Simple Lipids A. Impartial fats - Triglycerides B. Waxes 2. Conjugated Lipids (polar lipids) A. Phospholipids - contain a phosphoric corrosive particle and a fat atom. B. Glycolipid-contain a starch and a fat atom. cerebrosides globosides gangliosides C. Sulfolipids - contain a sulfate radical. D. lipoprotein 3. Inferred Lipids A. Unsaturated fats B. Glycerol C. Cholesterol and other steroid (Vit. D) D. Vitamins An, E, K

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Fatty acids comprise of a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic corrosive toward one side. Tie length from C4 to C24 . Alternatively,C molecules are numbered from COOH C is no. 1 , The Length of the Carbon Chain long-chain(16-above), medium-chain(8-14), short-chain(2-6) The Degree of Unsaturation ~saturated ~unsaturated - monounsaturated, polyunsaturated The Location of Double Bonds omega-3 unsaturated fat, omega-6 unsaturated fat Branched ,hydroxy, cyclic

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Saturated unsaturated fats Name end in "Anoic". Acidic 2 Propinoic 3 (OCFA)iso-BCFA Butyric 4 Valeric 5 (OCFA)iso-BCFA Caproic 6 Caprilic 8 Capric 10 Lauric 12 Myristic 14 Palmitic 16 (25%) Stearic 18 (5%) Arachidic 20 Lignoceric 24 unsaturated fats Name end in "Enoic" Monounsaturated Palmitoleic 16 D9( ω 7) Oleic 18 D9( ω 9) Erucic 22 D13( ω 9) Nervonic 24 D15( ω 9) Polyunsaturated Linoleic 18 D9,12( ω 6) α - linolenic 18 D9,12,15( ω 3) ( γ - D 9,12,6( ω 6)) Arachidonic 20 D5,10,11,14( ω 6) Timnodonic 20 D5,8,11,14,17( ω 3)EPA Clupanodonic 22 D7,10,13,16,19( ω 3)DPA Cervonic 22 D4,7,10,13,16,19( ω 3)DHA

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Omega-3: Eicosopentaenoic corrosive (EPA) Docosahexaenoic corrosive (DHA) Alpha-linolenic corrosive (ALA) flaxseed- - most, canola (rapeseed), soybean, walnut, wheat germ body can make some EPA and DHA from ALA Omega-6 corn, safflower, cottonseed, sesame, sunflower Linoleic corrosive Introduction of first twofold security is dependably at or close D9 by desaturase in nearness of O2,NADH,cyt b5.

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids ~ Associated with : mitigating, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, vasodilatory properties ~Inflammatory conditions ~Ulcerative colitis, Crohn\'s ~Cardiovascular infection ~Type 2 diabetes * Mental capacity ~Renal disease * Growth and advancement Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency ~Classical indications include: development impediment, conceptive disappointment, skin sores, kidney and liver issue, unpretentious neurological and visual issues ~People with interminable intestinal maladies ~Depression-deficient admission adjusts mind movement or sadness changes unsaturated fat digestion system ~Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ~lower levels of omega-3- - more behavioral issues

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Geometric isomerism Cis - setup—normally occuring Trans - shape—metabolic transitional. By result of immersion of FA "solidifying"

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Triacylglycerol ~Esters of trihydric alcohol,glycerol with different unsaturated fat. ~fatty acids are put away fundamentally in adipocytes as triacylglycerol. ~Triacylglycerol must be hydrolyzed to discharge the unsaturated fats. ~Adipocytes are discovered generally in the stomach cavity and subcutaneous tissue. ~Adipocytes are metabolically extremely dynamic; their put away triacylglycerol is continually hydrolyzed and resynthesized ~role of HORMONE SENSITIVE LIPASE

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Phospholipids are blended by esterification of a liquor to the phosphate of phosphatidic corrosive (1,2-diacylglycerol 3-phosphate). Most phospholipids have a soaked unsaturated fat on C-1 and an unsaturated fat on C-2 of the glycerol spine Simplest phospholipid CLASSIFICATION LONG CHAIN ALCOHOL CONTAINING plasmalogen ALCOHOL SPHINGOSINE sphingomyelin NITROGEN CONTAINING GLYCERO PHOSPHATIDS ~lecithin ~Cephalin ~Phosphotidyl serine NON-NITROGEN CONTAINING GLYCERO PHOSPHATIDS ~PHOSPHATIDYL INOSITOL ~PHOSPHATIDYL GLYCEROL ~CARDIOLIPIN

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Plasmalogens are glycerol ether phospholipids. 3 classes :choline, ethanolamine and serine plasmalogens. Ethanolamine (pervasive in myelin). Choline (heart tissue). choline plasmalogen (1-alkyl, 2-acetyl phosphatidylcholine) organic arbiter, prompting cell (fixations as low as 10 - 11 M. platelet initiating component, PAF Inositol as alcohol,isomeric shape: myoinositol,biomembrane(precursor for IP3) 2 phosphatidic acid+ glycerol (imm;myocardium) Serine as N base,CNS Phosphotidyl glycerol: middle of the road in syn. Of TG ,cardiolipin,(diphosphotidyl glycerol) Ethanolamine as N base, relationship with lecithin:CNS,amphiphatic Phospholipids integrated - two components. ~CDP-actuated polar set out gathering toward connection to the phosphate of phosphatidic corrosive. ~The different uses CDP-initiated 1,2-diacylglycerol and an inactivated polar head bunch.

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PHOSPHOTIDYL CHOLINE OR LECITHIN Non-polar tail PUFA Polar head GLYCEROL CHOLINE PHOSPHORIC ACID class of phospholipids :called the lecithins. Most copious in cell film At physiological pH, unbiased zwitterions . palmitic or stearic corrosive at carbon 1 oleic, linoleic or linolenic corrosive at carbon 2. dipalmitoyllecithin :pneumonic surfactant. It contains palmitate at both carbon 1 and 2 of glycerol. Choline is actuated first by phosphorylation and afterward by coupling to CDP preceding connection to phosphatidic acid. 

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~Phospholipase A 2 catalyzes hydrolysis of glycerophospholipid. ~ Lysophospholipid might be reacetylated or assaulted by lysophospholipase and extreme debasement to glycerol-3-P in addition to base. ~Alternatevely, lysolecithin might be framed by LCAT (lysolecithin chosterol acyl transferase.(transfer of PUFA from second C to cholesterol. ~Detergent and hemolytic operator . ~account for hemolysis and renal disappointment in snake harming A 1 :human,cobra venom A 2 :human pancreatic fluid,venom B :relationship with An, aspergillus sp., penicillum notatum C :real constituent of bacterial poison D :plants,mammalian flag transduction.

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PHOSPHOSPINGOLIPID/SPHINGOMYELIN CERAMIDE IS Synthesized IN ER FROM SERINE IMP. Flagging MOLECULE REGULATES PATHWAYS( PCD ,CELL CYCLE,CELL DIFFERENTIATION) CERAMIDE+PHOSPHOTIDYL CHOLINE - (GOLGI APPARATUS) SPHINGOMYELINASE IS THE ENZ. REQ. FOR DEGRADATION , DEFICIENCY—NIEMANN PICK DISEASE

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GLYCOLIPIDS CARBOHYDRATE AND CERAMIDE(SPHINGOSINE+FATTY ACID)NO PHOSPHORIC ACID CEREBROSIDE OR GLYCOSPHINGOSIDE OR CERAMIDE MONOHEXOSIDE Nervous tissue,white matter,myelin sheath Ceramide + glucose – glucocerebroside Ceramide + galactose – galactocerebroside Hydrolysis yield sugar , high MW FA, sphingosine Types KERASIN: Lignoceric acid(n-Tetracosanoic corrosive ,C 24 H 45 ) CEREBRON : hydroxy lignoceric (cerebronic corrosive) NERVON : unsaturated nervonic corrosive OXYNERVON ; hydroxyderivative of nervonic corrosive GAUCHERS DISEASE 2. GLOBOSIDES OR CERAMIDE OLIGOSACCHARIDE at least two hexose or hexoseamine joined to Ceramide + glucose + galactose = lactosyl ceramide Present in erythrocyte layer

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3.GANGLIOSIDES Ceramide + glucose &/or lady + n-acetyl galactoseamine + NANA CNS,spleen,RBC MW 180000 to 250000 kd Mono , di , trisialogangliosides show in cerebrum Types GM1,GM2,GM3 & GD3 GM3—most straightforward & basic (ceramide+glu+gal+NANA) GM1 intestine:receptor for cholera poison Receptor for coursing hormone TAY SACH\'S DISEASE SULPHOLIPID SULPHATED ESTERS OF GLYCOLIPID SULPHATED CEREBROSIDE,SULPHATED GLOBOSIDE,SULPHATED GANGLIOSIDES Sulfate GRP. ESTERIFIED TO - OH OF HEXOSE ABUNDANT IN WHITE MATTER OF BRAIN.

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Disorders Associated with Abnormal Sphingolipid Metabolism

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LIPOPROTEIN

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amassed in  intestinal mucosal cells  from  dietary lipids early chylomicron molecule has   apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 . discharged from the cells into the lymphatic framework - blood, receive  apo C-II  and  apo E  . Apo C-II enacts lipoprotein lipase , which corrupts the chylomicron\'s  triacylglycerol  to unsaturated fats and glycerol. The  unsaturated fats  are put away  (in the  fat ) or utilized for  vitality  (by the  muscle ). Patients with a  insufficiency  of  lipoprotein lipase  or  apo C-II  show an emotional collection of chylomic rons in the plasma chylomicron leftover — conveying the vast majority of the  dietary cholesterol — ties to a  receptor on the  liver  that recognizes  apo E . The molecule is  endocytosed  and its substance corrupted by  lysosomal

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Nascent VLDL  created in liver, formed of triacylglycerol. They contain a solitary particle of apo B-100. As triacylglycerol is expelled from the VLDL, the molecule receives cholesteryl esters from HDL. This procedure is refined by cholesteryl ester exchange protein. In the long run, VLDL in the plasma is converted to LDL .

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Apo C-II and apo E are come back to HDL LDL holds apo B-100 , which is perceived by  receptors  on  fringe tissues  and the  liver . LDLundergo  receptor-intervened endocytosis , and their substance are corrupted in the  lysosomes . The endocytosed ch

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