Lipids Store Energy in a Fat Cell Part of films Serve as concoction envoysSlide 3
Energy Storage Humans store Energy as fats Some Energy stockpiling is as the sugar glycogen – quick vitality Fats produce half more vitality per gram than starches 9 kcal/gram contrasted with 4 kcal/gramSlide 4
Membrane Components Because lipids are insoluble in water, they function admirably as layers to separate compartments in the body The structure of lipids makes them water repellent or hydrophobicSlide 5
Messengers Primary detachments like steroids Secondary errand people like prostaglandins or thromboxanesSlide 6
Classification of Lipids Classified into four gatherings 1) Fats and waxes 2) Complex Lipids 3) Steroids 4) ProstaglandinsSlide 7
Structure of Fats are esters Alcohol part is dependably glycerol Acid part changes yet is an "Unsaturated fat" likewise called "glycerin" an ordinary "unsaturated fat"Slide 8
Structure of Fats Fatty Acids (FA) 1) Practically all straight chain with no branches 2) 10 to 20 C long 3) Contain a significantly number of C The body constructs FA from two carbon units of acidic corrosive (acetic acid derivation particle) Those with twofold securities are as a rule in the cis isomer developmentSlide 9
Structure of Fats Fatty Acids + Glycerol = FAT (an ester) first FA glycerol second FA third FASlide 10
Structure of FATS Triglycerides (three FA esterified with glycerol) Also called Triacylglycerides diglycerides (two FA esterified w/glycerol) Monoglycerides (one FA esterified w/glycerol) Fats are insoluble in water Exist as both immersed and unsaturated FASlide 11
Structure of FATS Saturated Fatty Acids Fit together well - close, parallel arrangement Regular example Unsaturated Fatty Acids cis/trans twofold securities don\'t permit normal pressing LOWER mp and bp lower than the Sat\'d. FASlide 12
Properties of Fats Physical State - FATS Animal fats by and large solids at RT contain for the most part soaked FA Plant and Fish oils for the most part fluids at RT contain more unsaturated FASlide 13
Properties of Fats PURE Fats Colorless, unscented, and dull Tastes, scents, hues are brought on by substances broke up in the fats From Yahoo ImagesSlide 14
Hydrogenation Treatment with hydrogen gas, H 2 Catalyst required NOT hard to change over unsaturated FA to immersed FA Called "solidifying" Margarine contains more unsaturation than hydrogenated shortenings Crisco, Spry, and so onSlide 15
Hydrogenation Unsaturated changed over to immersed:Slide 16
Saponification Triglycerides are liable to hydrolysis Can be hydrolyzed with corrosive or Base hydrolysis is called "saponification" Result of base hydrolysis is a SOAP The blend of sodium salts of Fatty Acids delivered by saponification is called SOAP.Slide 17
Saponification Triglycerides are liable to hydrolysis base hydrolysis is called "saponification"Slide 18
Soap Making Pre-eighteenth century cleanser making… It is said of Queen Elizabeth I that she washed once every month, "whether she expected to or not". Whether she utilized cleanser is not recorded. In any case, cleanser was an item just accessible to the affluent before cutting edge times. Wellspring of "lye"… A substantial wooden container, which was expansive at the top and decreased down to a little base, was kept in the lawn close to the kitchen entryway. The container was made of clapboards, which were masterminded as a pyramid turned up side down. Dried grass or cornhusks were put into the base of the holder to go about as a strainer. In this the wood fiery debris from the hearth were put away. At the point when the container was filled, numerous pails of water must be drawn from the well and poured over the fiery remains. Through a trough from the base of the container came the drops of solid chestnut lye, which was placed in an extensive pot over the flame to bubble. When the lye would drift an egg, scraps of fat and oil were placed in. everybody was mindful so as not to touch the solid lye, for it would have eaten the skin off one\'s fingers. (62) The oil was spared by the housewife from cooking amid a while. At that point it was placed in the substantial round-bottomed iron pot with the hand crafted lye. Subsequent to heating up the blend turned into a mass of jam like cleanser. At that point it was permitted to cool, and from it were cut bars of chestnut cleanser, which were put away for family unit use. (63)Slide 19
Common Fatty Acids To KnowSlide 20
FA Glycerol FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple ComplexSlide 21
FA Glycerol FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids GlycolipidsSlide 22
FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycolipids GlycerophospholipidsSlide 23
FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids PhosphoglyceridesSlide 24
FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA PO 4 3-ALCOHOL Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids PhosphoglyceridesSlide 25
FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA PO 4 3-PO 4 3-ALCOHOL CHOLINE Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids Phosphoglycerides FA SphingosineSlide 27
Membranes Complex Lipids make up layers Hydrophilic versus HydrophobicSlide 28
Cell Membrane Lipid layers line up with alaphatic tails internal Unsaturation takes into consideration fluid like character of the film Intergral and fringe proteins are a part of the structure Cholesteral is additionally a segment of layersSlide 29
Transport Through a MembraneSlide 30
Membranes Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GW0lqf4Fqpg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULR79TiUj80 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vh5dhjXzbXc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ooX9hHu5baMSlide 31
+ Glycerophospholipids Glycerol is the liquor Two acids are Fatty Acids Third is esterified to PO 4 3-and choline The Fatty Acid on carbon 2 is unsaturatedSlide 32
+ Glycerophospholipids Locate: glycerol segment stearic corrosive choline linoleic corrosive phosphate Phosphotidylcholines Also called "lecithins" Charged gatherings Forms lipid bilayer with Hydrophobic heads togetherSlide 33
Glycerophospholipids Cephalins another sort of glycerophospholipids liquor is ethanolamine or serine rather than cholineSlide 34
Glycerophospholipids Phosphatidylinositols (PI) Alcohol is inositol Serve as flagging or Communication destinations inositolSlide 35
Sphingolipids Coating of nerve axons (myelin) Alcohol segment is sphingosine (not glycerol) A long chain unsaturated fat is associated with the NH 2 The End OH gathering is esterified by phosphorylcholineSlide 36
Sphingolipids Can you discover the sphingosine????Slide 37
a glucocerebroside Glycolipids contain starches They likewise utilize sphingosine One write is the cerebrosides happen in the mind (7% of dry weight!) present at nerve neurotransmittersSlide 38
Steroids A third significant class of lipids: They are all in light of this structureSlide 39
Cholesterol most bounteous steroid in the body cell film segment crude material for different steroids blend Exists in both free and esterified shapes Esterifies with FA Gallstones are verging on immaculate cholesterol Correlation between HI serum levels and atherosclerosis Necessary for human life Manufactured in the liver – body keeps a set sumSlide 40
Lipoproteins Transport cholesterol, and fats Types of Lipoproteins HDL = hello thickness lipoprotein (the great Kind) 33% protein and 30% cholesterol LDL = lo thickness lipoprotein (the not great kind) 25% protein and 50 % cholesterolSlide 41
Steroid Hormones Cholesterol is beginning material for amalgamation of Progesterone: Alcohol on C-3 changed over to a ketone Side chain on D ring adjusted Precursor of sex hormones and adrenocorticoid hormonesSlide 42
Hormones from ProgesteroneSlide 43
Steroid Hormones Aldosterone Product of the adrenal organ Mineralocorticoid (directs particle focus) Increased emission upgrades reabsorption of Na + and Cl - particles in the kidney tubulesSlide 44
Steroid Hormones Sex Hormones - Testosterone Promotes ordinary development of male sex organs Synthesized in testicles from cholesterol Secretion brings about 2 nd sex qualitiesSlide 45
Steroid Hormones Sex Hormones - Estradiol Regulates cyclic changes in the uterus Synthesized from testosterone Menstrual Cycle expanded estradiol at start of cycle uterus thickens Luteinizing hormone triggers ovulationSlide 48
YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oaFmKc3ll0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBBWMRRWOrM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_ewmP1L7roSlide 49
Bile Salts Bile Salts are oxidation results of Cholesterol – 3 OH\'s and an Acid end Charged salt is more solvent in arrangement Bile salts scatter dietary lipids in the small digestive system – increment assimilation rate Removes cholesterol in two ways – they are broken cholesterols and break up deposited cholesterolSlide 50
Prostaglandins Fatty corrosive like substances Produced in prostate little sums delivered in all tissue Synthesized from Arachidonic AcidSlide 51
Prostaglandins PGE 2 affect work remedial premature birth brings bp utilized down to treat asthma PGE 2 causes hypertension PGE 1 utilized as a nasal decongestantSlide 52
Thromboxanes Induce Plaelet accumulation When a vein is cracked, platelets assemble and PGH 2 causes Them to cluster together Aspirin hinders the impact and acts A blood more slender PGH 2Slide 53
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