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Lipids. Store Energy in a Fat Cell Part of membranes Serve as chemical messengers. Energy Storage. Humans store Energy in the form of fats Some Energy storage is in the form of the carbohydrate glycogen – fast energy Fats produce 50% more energy per gram than carbohydrates
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Lipids Store Energy in a Fat Cell Part of films Serve as concoction envoys

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Energy Storage Humans store Energy as fats Some Energy stockpiling is as the sugar glycogen – quick vitality Fats produce half more vitality per gram than starches 9 kcal/gram contrasted with 4 kcal/gram

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Membrane Components Because lipids are insoluble in water, they function admirably as layers to separate compartments in the body The structure of lipids makes them water repellent or hydrophobic

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Messengers Primary detachments like steroids Secondary errand people like prostaglandins or thromboxanes

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Classification of Lipids Classified into four gatherings 1) Fats and waxes 2) Complex Lipids 3) Steroids 4) Prostaglandins

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Structure of Fats are esters Alcohol part is dependably glycerol Acid part changes yet is an "Unsaturated fat" likewise called "glycerin" an ordinary "unsaturated fat"

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Structure of Fats Fatty Acids (FA) 1) Practically all straight chain with no branches 2) 10 to 20 C long 3) Contain a significantly number of C The body constructs FA from two carbon units of acidic corrosive (acetic acid derivation particle) Those with twofold securities are as a rule in the cis isomer development

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Structure of Fats Fatty Acids + Glycerol = FAT (an ester) first FA glycerol second FA third FA

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Structure of FATS Triglycerides (three FA esterified with glycerol) Also called Triacylglycerides diglycerides (two FA esterified w/glycerol) Monoglycerides (one FA esterified w/glycerol) Fats are insoluble in water Exist as both immersed and unsaturated FA

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Structure of FATS Saturated Fatty Acids Fit together well - close, parallel arrangement Regular example Unsaturated Fatty Acids cis/trans twofold securities don't permit normal pressing LOWER mp and bp lower than the Sat'd. FA

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Properties of Fats Physical State - FATS Animal fats by and large solids at RT contain for the most part soaked FA Plant and Fish oils for the most part fluids at RT contain more unsaturated FA

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Properties of Fats PURE Fats Colorless, unscented, and dull Tastes, scents, hues are brought on by substances broke up in the fats From Yahoo Images

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Hydrogenation Treatment with hydrogen gas, H 2 Catalyst required NOT hard to change over unsaturated FA to immersed FA Called "solidifying" Margarine contains more unsaturation than hydrogenated shortenings Crisco, Spry, and so on

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Hydrogenation Unsaturated changed over to immersed:

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Saponification Triglycerides are liable to hydrolysis Can be hydrolyzed with corrosive or Base hydrolysis is called "saponification" Result of base hydrolysis is a SOAP The blend of sodium salts of Fatty Acids delivered by saponification is called SOAP.

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Saponification Triglycerides are liable to hydrolysis base hydrolysis is called "saponification"

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Soap Making Pre-eighteenth century cleanser making… It is said of Queen Elizabeth I that she washed once every month, "whether she expected to or not". Whether she utilized cleanser is not recorded. In any case, cleanser was an item just accessible to the affluent before cutting edge times. Wellspring of "lye"… A substantial wooden container, which was expansive at the top and decreased down to a little base, was kept in the lawn close to the kitchen entryway. The container was made of clapboards, which were masterminded as a pyramid turned up side down. Dried grass or cornhusks were put into the base of the holder to go about as a strainer. In this the wood fiery debris from the hearth were put away. At the point when the container was filled, numerous pails of water must be drawn from the well and poured over the fiery remains. Through a trough from the base of the container came the drops of solid chestnut lye, which was placed in an extensive pot over the flame to bubble. When the lye would drift an egg, scraps of fat and oil were placed in. everybody was mindful so as not to touch the solid lye, for it would have eaten the skin off one's fingers. (62) The oil was spared by the housewife from cooking amid a while. At that point it was placed in the substantial round-bottomed iron pot with the hand crafted lye. Subsequent to heating up the blend turned into a mass of jam like cleanser. At that point it was permitted to cool, and from it were cut bars of chestnut cleanser, which were put away for family unit use. (63)

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Common Fatty Acids To Know

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FA Glycerol FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex

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FA Glycerol FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids

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FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycolipids Glycerophospholipids

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FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids Phosphoglycerides

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FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA PO 4 3-ALCOHOL Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids Phosphoglycerides

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FA GLUCOSE GALACTOSE Glycerol FA Sphingosine FA PO 4 3-PO 4 3-ALCOHOL CHOLINE Classification of Lipids Simple and complex lipids Simple Complex Glycerophospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids Phosphoglycerides FA Sphingosine

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Membranes Complex Lipids make up layers Hydrophilic versus Hydrophobic

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Cell Membrane Lipid layers line up with alaphatic tails internal Unsaturation takes into consideration fluid like character of the film Intergral and fringe proteins are a part of the structure Cholesteral is additionally a segment of layers

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Transport Through a Membrane

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Membranes Youtube

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+ Glycerophospholipids Glycerol is the liquor Two acids are Fatty Acids Third is esterified to PO 4 3-and choline The Fatty Acid on carbon 2 is unsaturated

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+ Glycerophospholipids Locate: glycerol segment stearic corrosive choline linoleic corrosive phosphate Phosphotidylcholines Also called "lecithins" Charged gatherings Forms lipid bilayer with Hydrophobic heads together

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Glycerophospholipids Cephalins another sort of glycerophospholipids liquor is ethanolamine or serine rather than choline

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Glycerophospholipids Phosphatidylinositols (PI) Alcohol is inositol Serve as flagging or Communication destinations inositol

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Sphingolipids Coating of nerve axons (myelin) Alcohol segment is sphingosine (not glycerol) A long chain unsaturated fat is associated with the NH 2 The End OH gathering is esterified by phosphorylcholine

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Sphingolipids Can you discover the sphingosine????

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a glucocerebroside Glycolipids contain starches They likewise utilize sphingosine One write is the cerebrosides happen in the mind (7% of dry weight!) present at nerve neurotransmitters

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Steroids A third significant class of lipids: They are all in light of this structure

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Cholesterol most bounteous steroid in the body cell film segment crude material for different steroids blend Exists in both free and esterified shapes Esterifies with FA Gallstones are verging on immaculate cholesterol Correlation between HI serum levels and atherosclerosis Necessary for human life Manufactured in the liver – body keeps a set sum

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Lipoproteins Transport cholesterol, and fats Types of Lipoproteins HDL = hello thickness lipoprotein (the great Kind) 33% protein and 30% cholesterol LDL = lo thickness lipoprotein (the not great kind) 25% protein and 50 % cholesterol

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Steroid Hormones Cholesterol is beginning material for amalgamation of Progesterone: Alcohol on C-3 changed over to a ketone Side chain on D ring adjusted Precursor of sex hormones and adrenocorticoid hormones

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Hormones from Progesterone

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Steroid Hormones Aldosterone Product of the adrenal organ Mineralocorticoid (directs particle focus) Increased emission upgrades reabsorption of Na + and Cl - particles in the kidney tubules

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Steroid Hormones Sex Hormones - Testosterone Promotes ordinary development of male sex organs Synthesized in testicles from cholesterol Secretion brings about 2 nd sex qualities

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Steroid Hormones Sex Hormones - Estradiol Regulates cyclic changes in the uterus Synthesized from testosterone Menstrual Cycle expanded estradiol at start of cycle uterus thickens Luteinizing hormone triggers ovulation

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Bile Salts Bile Salts are oxidation results of Cholesterol – 3 OH's and an Acid end Charged salt is more solvent in arrangement Bile salts scatter dietary lipids in the small digestive system – increment assimilation rate Removes cholesterol in two ways – they are broken cholesterols and break up deposited cholesterol

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Prostaglandins Fatty corrosive like substances Produced in prostate little sums delivered in all tissue Synthesized from Arachidonic Acid

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Prostaglandins PGE 2 affect work remedial premature birth brings bp utilized down to treat asthma PGE 2  causes hypertension PGE 1 utilized as a nasal decongestant

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Thromboxanes Induce Plaelet accumulation When a vein is cracked, platelets assemble and PGH 2 causes Them to cluster together Aspirin hinders the impact and acts A blood more slender PGH 2

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