Lymphocyte improvement and survival Section 7.


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Destinations. Depict or build stream graphs demonstrating the stages being developed of B cells and T cells, including:The general attributes (surface markers, and so forth) of lymphocytes at each stageOther sorts of cells or cytokines that are required at each stageWhat happens to cells which neglect to finish a phase of developmentPredict how particular hereditary imperfections would adjust lymphocyte advancement.
Transcripts
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Lymphocyte advancement and survival Chapter 7

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Objectives Describe or build stream outlines demonstrating the phases being developed of B cells and T cells, including: The general attributes (surface markers, and so forth) of lymphocytes at every stage Other sorts of cells or cytokines that are required at every phase What happens to cells which neglect to finish a phase of improvement Predict how particular hereditary imperfections would change lymphocyte improvement

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Hematopoiesis Lymphopoiesis mostly happens in focal lymphoid tissues

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Testing for suitable antigen acknowledgment properties ( resistance to self) Activation by antigen Differentiation Major phases of advancement in lymphocytes Expression of antigen receptor

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Overview of B cell advancement

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Overview of T cell improvement

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B cell advancement Expression of antigen receptor (immunoglobulin)

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B cell advancement: Expression of Ig Stromal cells in the bone marrow give cytokines and bolster required to early B cell improvement Interleukin-7 (IL-7) Cell grip particles (CAMs)

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B cell advancement: Expression of Ig

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B cell improvement: Expression of Ig

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B cell improvement: Expression of Ig

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RAG B cell improvement: Expression of Ig

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B cell advancement: Expression of Ig Rescue of B cells with inefficient rearrangments

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Testing for fitting antigen acknowledgment properties ( resilience to self) B cell improvement Expression of antigen receptor Negative determination: choice of cells that don\'t tie to self antigens

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B cell advancement: Negative choice

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B cell advancement: Negative choice Self-responsive B cells may experience encourage light chain revamp

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B cell improvement: Negative choice Some self antigens are just communicated in the fringe High levels of cross-connecting antigen in outskirts can incite B cell anergy

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Testing for proper antigen acknowledgment properties ( resistance to self) Activation by antigen B cell improvement Expression of antigen receptor

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B cell advancement: initiation by antigen

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B cell advancement: enactment by antigen Chemokines draw in and hold B cells in the lymph hubs CXCL13

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B cell advancement: actuation by antigen

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Testing for fitting antigen acknowledgment properties ( resilience to self) Activation by antigen Differentiation B cell advancement Expression of antigen receptor

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B cell improvement: separation Activated B cells experience clonal extension Progeny separate into plasma cells or memory B cells Isotype exchanging and physical hypermutation happen

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B cell malignancies B cell tumors emerge from cells at different phases of advancement Retain qualities of the ordinary B cell equal

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Overview of T cell improvement

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Some lymphoid forebears move to the thymus

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The significance of the thymus for T cell improvement

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Testing for proper antigen acknowledgment properties ( resistance to self) Activation by antigen Differentiation T cell improvement Expression of antigen receptor

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T cell advancement Expression of TCR

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T cell advancement: articulation of TCR Progenitors landing from the bone marrow don\'t express TCR, CD3, CD4, or CD8 Successful reworking of TCR  chain brings about articulation of a pre-T-cell receptor, CD3, CD4, and CD8

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T cell improvement: articulation of TCR

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T cell advancement: articulation of TCR

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T cell improvement: articulation of TCR

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Testing for suitable antigen acknowledgment properties ( resistance to self) T cell advancement Expression of TCR

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T cell improvement: choice for self-resistance Selection for self-resilience in T cells requires two phases: Positive choice for capacity to tie to MHC : peptide buildings Negative choice disposes of T cells with high-proclivity authoritative to MHC : self peptide edifices

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T cell improvement: Positive choice

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T cell advancement: Positive choice

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T cell improvement: Negative choice

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The part of thymic cells in positive and negative choice

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Mechanisms of positive and negative choice Mechanisms that separate positive and negative choice are not clear Difference in liking? Different signs required?

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Testing for suitable antigen acknowledgment properties ( resistance to self) Activation by antigen T cell advancement Expression of TCR

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T cell improvement: actuation by antigen

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T cell advancement: initiation by antigen As with B cells, self-receptive T cells can likewise be killed in the fringe Activation-prompted cell passing Anergy

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Testing for fitting antigen acknowledgment properties ( resilience to self) Activation by antigen Differentiation T cell improvement Expression of TCR

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T cell improvement: separation Activated T cells experience clonal extension Differentiation of descendants into effector or memory cells Cytotoxic T lymphocytes Helper T cells (Th1, Th2) Memory T cells

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T cell tumors

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