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Some Balkan nations pick up self-sufficiency or autonomy, however not Macedonia ... Macedonia changed a few conditions in its constitution on Dec. 26 to ...
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Macedonia By: Tamara La Martina

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Overview Total territory is 25,713 km2 (somewhat bigger than condition of Vermont) Bordered by Albania, Serbia/Kosovo, Bulgaria, and Greece Completely landlocked since divided after the First Balkan War by Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia; nearest vast water port is in Thessalonica (Greece)

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Environment Wide scope of topographic, climatic, and vegetation districts; most noteworthy height is 2753m, least is 50m Sub-Mediterranean to snow capped conditions 4 rule waterways: Vardar R, Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa, and Lake Dojran 37% secured by woods Natural assets: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, poor quality iron metal, asbestos, sulfur and arable Area of high seismic movement Water lack issues esp. in east

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Topography of Macedonia

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Population is approx. 2.1 million West most profoundly populated: 39% of pop. Lives in region, which makes up 43% of aggregate area territory; 18.5% of pop. lives in east Largest urban communities are: Skopje (capital) Bitola, Tetovo, Kumanovo, Veles, Prilep, Stip, Strumica, Ohrid

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Ethnicity and Religion Titular lion\'s share is 67% of aggregate populace Large ethnic Albanian minority is approx. 23% Also little Turkish, Roma, and Serbian minorities Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3% 2/3 of pop. are Orthodox, 30% Muslims (Albanians and Turks), 0.5% Catholic, and 2.8% other

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Economy and Industry One of the poorest and most immature nations in Europe; constrained industrialization amid socialist time Instability and strife brought on the economy to recoil after autonomy Primary fares: nourishment, drinks, tobacco, misc. produced things, iron and steel Agriculture and tourism additionally essential to economy

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Macedonian Question

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History of the Macedonian Question went to the cutting edge in the 19 th century as the Ottoman Empire was disintegrating and patriotism in the Balkans was growing One of the best strategic concerns confronting the Great Powers in the 19 th c. The Question was "Who are the Macedonians ethnically?" and "Who has the most grounded case to the domain?" Bulgarian s asserted that Macedonians were ethnically Bulgarian and the area ought to be theirs since it was the site of the main autonomous Bulgarian Orthodox Church Serbians guaranteed that Skopje was the capital of Stefan Dusan\'s medieval realm and subsequently the "heartland" of their ethnic region Greeks made the case that Macedonians were Slavic-communicating in Greeks and that Philip II and Alexander the Great were Greeks Question got to be applicable again after the separation of Yugoslavia

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Ancient History of Macedonia Philip II (359-336 B.C.); extended Macedonian region to incorporate Greece; killed in 336 B.C. Alexander III… also called "The Great" (336-323 B.C.); extended Macedonian realm to incorporate domains to the Indus R. in India, Egypt, and along the western shoreline of Black Sea Macedonia\'s enormous (and perhaps just) distinguishing strength! Cutting edge Greeks attempt to say Alexander and Macedonians were Greeks, however people of old thought they were savages

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Medieval Empires Byzantine, Bulgarian, and Serbian Empires Brought Orthodoxy, Cyrillic letter set, and primitive society Feudalism created tribal groups to lose autonomy and transformed them into serfs; primitive masters for the most part of Greek and Armenian plummet Autonomous Bulgarian Orthodox Church set up in Ohrid (free from Greek patriarch) and the capital of the Western Bulgarian Kingdom under Samuil

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Ottoman Rule Turks started principle in 1394 which proceeded until 1912 Change in Demographics and religion Incursion of Ottoman armed force brought on numerous Slavs to escape; Ottomans settled Turks, Albanians, and Ladino Jews set up of Slavs Albanians utilized as landowners and heads; some portion of inception of current threatening vibe amongst Macedonians and Albanians Macedonian (Bulgarian) Orthodox Church set under Greek patriarch and Hellenization

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1800\'s Some Balkan nations pick up self-sufficiency or autonomy, yet not Macedonia After Russo-Turkish War (1878), Treaty of San Stefano gave the greater part of Macedonia to Bulgaria Great Powers couldn\'t help contradicting this choice and Macedonia was offered back to Turks by Congress of Berlin During late 1800\'s Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia attempt to pick up impact in Macedonia through schools, religion, and dialect. Prompts what is known as the "Macedonian Question"

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Balkan Wars 1912-1913 First Balkan War Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia battle Ottomans for Balkan regions staying under Turkish govern and succeed in their exertion Second Balkan War Former partners battle about the picked up region; Serbia gets Vardar (Modern) Macedonia, Greece gets Aegean Macedonia, and Bulgaria left with little Pirin zone

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World War II Bulgaria for the third time since First Balkan War picks up control all of Macedonia by joining the Germans and kicked out again after their side loses once more. Josip Tito, pulled in numerous Macedonians with guarantees of rejoining the three zones of Macedonia after the war; never expert however Communists keep on fighting to recapture Aegean and Perin Macedonia until vanquished in 1950

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Yugoslavia 1944-1990 Tito neglected to join areas of Macedonia, yet … Created a Macedonian republic in the Vardar Macedonia district First to perceive Macedonians as an unmistakable ethnic and political element; standard dialect received; history of zone reinterpreted, and independent Macedonian Orthodox Church was built up in 1958 Encouragement of Macedonian Nationalism as an apparatus against the Bulgarians\' and Greeks\' cases on the region Poured cash into the zone for instructive and monetary progression

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Independence In 1990 Communism broken down in Yugoslavia Sept. 8, 1991, Yugoslav Macedonia held a choice in which 95% voted in favor of autonomy (Serbian and Albanian minorities boycotted the choice); withdrew in November New nation drove by Kiro Gligorov (1991-1999) Power partitioned between the Macedonian dominant part party the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization and the Ethnic Albanian-Democratic Party for Macedonia (VMRO-DPMNE) and Democratic Party of Albanians (DPA) Greatest test to the new state has been the move and adjustment of its economy, picking up acknowledgment from its neighbors, and ethnic clashes

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The Modern Question Greece is disturbed on account of the utilization of the name Macedonia, a few provisions in its constitution, and in view of its banner; thought the new gov\'t had irredentist desire on Greek Aegean Macedonian territory August 1991 Greece shut its outskirt to Macedonia and forced an oil ban, which injured the Macedonian economy Old Flag Current Flag

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Recognition by EU and UN Macedonia changed a few conditions in its constitution on Dec. 26 to fit EU\'s criteria for acknowledgment; no regional cases on different nations and repudiated interfering in different nations undertakings On Jan. 15 Germany perceived Slovenia and Croatia, yet not Macedonia or Bosnia Why? Inner pressures w/ethnic Albanians high and Greece had blocked acknowledgment of Macedonia since Macedonian\'s gov\'t wouldn\'t change name and banner

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Recognition cont\'d. Dec. 10, 1992 Greek exhibit in Athens against acknowledgment of Macedonia, +million individuals took part Dec. 11 UN Security Council sent a peacekeeping power to Macedonia, dreading the spread of Balkan War April 8, 1993 Macedonia was admitted to UN against the desires of Greece and Yugoslavia, however needed to utilize the temporary name The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ; EU additionally augmented acknowledgment; 300 American and 150 Canadian troops ensured the fringes Decision on name as yet pending… .

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Macedonian Protests

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Propaganda From Both Sides Both sides of the "Inquiry" started a purposeful publicity battle Greeks have gotten where they cleared out off in the 19 th c. Macedonians Slavs protecting their particular ethnicity and history Historians of Ancient Greece have likewise grabbed the unsolvable inquiry of "who are the Macedonians?" answer still in limbo… .

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" Hellenized" Macedonian History

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The Macedonian Viewpoint Pirin Vardar Aegean Macedonia prior and then afterward the allotments of the Balkan Wars

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Macedonian-Albanian Conflict

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Origins Of The Conflict Hostilities backtracking to Ottoman Empire, when Albanian Muslims were the overlords Ethnic Albanian minority requiring a more prominent rights Some call for withdrawal of Albanian dominant part territories Possibility of Macedonia\'s pioneers beginning clash to shroud burglary of state-claimed undertakings and resources

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The Conflict Feb. 2001 equipped ethnic Albanians took Tetovo; said they were individuals from the National Liberation Army (NLA); said they needed more political and financial rights; gov\'t said they were attempting to partition the nation along ethnic lines Struggle amongst NLA and gov\'t went on for seven months; 200 killed, 180 000 uprooted US and Europe sent ambassadors who fashioned a peace assention at Ohrid on August 13

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National Liberation Army Many of center individuals were a piece of the disbanded Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) Searching for "More noteworthy Albania (Kosovo)"; drove by Ali Ahmeti Also tried to dispose of the degenerate DPA

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NLA/ANA Propaganda Population details as indicated by ANA: - 8 factory. Albanians and 800,000 Macedonian Slavs - genuine overall # of Albanians= 5 plant. ROM enumeration and CIA: - 2 factory. Natives :6

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