Malignancy Cancer named by Hippocrates – Crab Cancer is one infection as well as rather a gathering of sicknesses. All types of disease cause cells in the body to change and become crazy. Most sorts of malignancy cells frame an irregularity or mass called a tumor .Slide 2
What is Cancer? All diseases have neoplastic development, modified cells with almost boundless development. Considerate restricted Malignant spread substantially more debilitating Metastatic disease cells move to different parts of the bodySlide 3
Tumor Increase in the quantity of undifferentiated cells makes a developing mass of tissue called a "tumor" or "neoplasm."Slide 4
Benign versus Harmful Benign tumors will be tumors that can\'t spread by intrusion or metastasis; henceforth, they just become locally. Dangerous tumor spread into encompassing tissueSlide 5
Metastasis Malignant tumors can spread through circulation system and lymph to removed locales Lung, liver, bone and mind are basic destinations of metastasisSlide 6
Types of growth Carcinomas - Epithelial tissue 85% skin stomach lining mucous films Sarcomas - Connective tissue (2%) bones, muscles, ligament Leukemias - Blood (8%) Lymphomas – Originate in lymphatic framework (5%).Slide 7
Effects of Cancer Proliferation of malignancy cells at every site meddles with ordinary cell improvement and working. Vascularization of tumors denies assemblage of supplements Produces torment as it makes weight on tissues and nerves and pieces stream of body liquids. Most experience extreme torment in later stages.Slide 8
How does growth bring about death? DIRECT - spreading to a crucial organ and takes supplements the organ needs creating the organ to come up short. Backhanded - debilitating the casualty, weakening hankering and resistant working.Slide 9
Second driving reason for death in the U. S. General death rates aside from lung disease stable. Rates for specific growths and particular ages in flux. Men lung prostate colon rectum Pancreas Women lung bosom colon rectum pancreas Cancer - MortalitySlide 10
Cancer Death Rates*, for Men, US,1930-2003 Lung & bronchus Rate Per 100,000 Stomach Prostate Colon & rectum Pancreas Leukemia LiverSlide 11
Cancer Death Rates*, for Women, US,1930-2003 Rate Per 100,000 Lung & bronchus Uterus Breast Colon & rectum Stomach Ovary PancreasSlide 12
2007 Estimated US Cancer Cases Men 766,860 Women 678,060 26% Breast 15% Lung & bronchus 11% Colon & rectum 6% Uterine corpus 4% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4% Melanoma of skin 4% Thyroid 3% Ovary 3% Kidney 3% Leukemia 21% All Other Sites Prostate 29% Lung & bronchus 15% Colon & rectum 10% Urinary bladder 7% Non-Hodgkin 4% lymphoma Melanoma of skin 4% Kidney 4% Leukemia 3% Oral cavity 3% Pancreas 2% All Other Sites 19%Slide 13
Lifetime Probability of Cancer, Men Site Risk All sites 1 in 2 Prostate 1 in 6 Lung & bronchus 1 in 13 Colon & rectum 1 in 17 Urinary bladder 1 in 29 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1 in 47 Melanoma 1 in 57 Leukemia 1 in 69 Oral cavity 1 in 71 Kidney 1 in 72 Stomach 1 in 79Slide 14
Lifetime Probability of Cancer, Women Site Risk All sites 1 in 3 Breast 1 in 8 Lung & bronchus 1 in 17 Colon & rectum 1 in 18 Uterine corpus 1 in 37 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1 in 56 Ovary 1 in 58 Pancreas 1 in 80 Melanoma 1 in 81 Urinary bladder 1 in 88 Uterine cervix 1 in 123Slide 15
1900 – 1993 expansive increment in mortality Decreasing fairly since 1993 for most locales Lung tumor is exemption Different growths have diverse rates of decay and increment Diagnostic issues and other ailment issues tangle the photo Improved conclusion Increase in lung malignancy in ladies Cancers identified with AIDS Control of different sicknesses Increase in natural cancer-causing agents Cancer MortalitySlide 16
Cancer & Ethnicity Anglo men – higher rates of bladder disease. Hispanics – most reduced rates of lung growth yet ladies have most noteworthy rates of cervix tumor. Blacks – most noteworthy rates of prostate malignancy. Japanese – most noteworthy rates of stomach disease. Chinese Americans most minimal rates of liver tumor. Northern Europeans – high rates of bosom growth.Slide 17
What Causes Cancer? Growth is a "hereditary" illness however >70% are not acquired Cancer is a sickness of presentation to various danger components Exposure harms DNA, along these lines adjusting quality expression eventually prompting disease Figuring out accurate cause it excessively complex now so we concentrate on RISK FACTORSSlide 18
RISK FACTORS FOR CANCERSlide 19
Non-controllable Risk Factors Environmental Certain synthetic exposures Radiation Nuclear Powerplants? Powerlines? Characteristic Factors Family History – Seems so for a few types of bosom and colon tumor AgeSlide 20
Controllable Risk FactorsSlide 21
Smoking and Cancer 33% of the 500,000 disease passings yearly in the United States are created by cigarette smoking 90% of lung growth passings in men and 80%in ladies brought on by smoking.Slide 22
Smoking and Cancer Cigarette smoking has synergistic impact with other natural poisons.Slide 23
33% of disease passings is brought on by an assortment of dietary variables. Sustenances high in cancer-causing agents Foods that have an excessive amount of creature fat and insufficient fiber Cancer and DietSlide 24
American Cancer Society To diminish your growth hazard, take after a general dietary example that incorporates: A high extent of plant nourishments (organic products, vegetables, grains, and beans) Limited measures of meat, dairy, and other high-fat sustenances An equalization of caloric admission and physical movement.Slide 25
Alcohol and Cancer Alcohol ensnared in diseases of the tongue, tonsils, esophagus,and liver Related to bosom growth >2 savors/day ladiesSlide 26
Alcohol and Synergism Alcohol may have a synergistic impact Clear for tobacco. The danger is half higher is one smokes AND beverages than the added substance dangers of every one.Slide 27
Physical movement Good case of correlational examination wellbeing causes exercise causes wellbeing Mixed results Two late studies demonstrating that practicing four hours a week diminishes odds of bosom disease in young ladies Prostate tumor in menSlide 28
Ultraviolet Light and Cancer Good case of connection light-cleaned individuals close to the equator have higher danger Dramatic ascent since 1970\'sSlide 29
Types of Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma – Slow development doesn\'t spread much if at all Squamous Cell Carcinoma – Grow more rapidly than the over a can spread Malignant Melanoma – Grows rapidly and spreads. Happens on or close molesSlide 30
ABCD\'s of Skin Cancer A stands for ASYMMETRY One portion of the mole doesn\'t coordinate the other half. Melanoma have a tendency to be unpredictable. B remains for BORDER IRREGULARITY Benign moles have smooth edges though melanoma are hectically attacking and have a tendency to have sporadic edges. C remains for COLOR. In the event that the shading is seriously dark, perhaps with a somewhat blue tint, or the shading is uneven over the mole, this is suspicious of a melanoma. D remains for DIAMETER If the mole is more noteworthy than 6 mm (about the span of a pea), then there is a more noteworthy chance that it is threatening.Slide 31
Sexual Behavior and Cancer AIDS Kaposi\'s sarcoma non-Hodgkins lymphoma Invasive cervical malignancy Certain sexual practices can add to tumor hazard. Cervical tumorSlide 32
Psychological FactorsSlide 33
Methodological issues forthcoming versus review considers. Standard anxiety diminished hazard however a solitary significant occasion expanded it. Contrarily related were capacity to express outrage and carrying on with a bustling way of life. Emphatically identified with malignancy were deprivation and precluding the presence from securing issues Palesh et. al, (2007) Studied part of injury and anxiety in tumor repeat in ladies with BC 94 ladies with reccurrence of BC Trauma and anxiety was identified with shorter sickness free interim Stress and growthSlide 34
Thornton et al, (2007) 113 ladies with bosom malignancy Assessed at finding & 4, 8, 12, year and a half after Perceived anxiety and insusceptible capacitySlide 35
Suppression of Emotion One investigation of females w/bosom disease found the individuals who smothered feeling will probably create malignancy. Comparable results found in investigation of veterans and disease when all is said in done. Restorative understudies who had more disease in the individuals who smothered feeling versus the individuals who carried on practices Penedo et. Al, (2006) – Suppression of annoyance identified with abatement in NKCC in men with prostate growthSlide 36
Depression and Cancer Depression may make individuals have a higher mortality yet not dismalness for disease. A few studies have discovered this relationship some haven\'t.Slide 37
Treatment and SurvivalSlide 38
Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Hormonal treatment – Breast Prostate Uterine and a few Leukemias Immunotherapy – Convince insusceptible framework to assault tumor Loss of hair Burns Nausea Vomiting Fatigue Sterility Pain Loss of capacity Treatment & Side Effects of CancerSlide 39
Survival More than half of all growth patients get by no less than five years Remission not Cure Cancer is pummeled it is obscure on the off chance that it is each completely evacuated sometimesSlide 40
Relative Survival by Cancer Site 1983-1985 1992-1998 Site 1974-1976 All sites 50 52 62 Breast (female) 75 78 86 Colon & rectum 50 57 62 Leukemia 34 41 46 Lung & bronchus 12 14 15 Melanoma 80 85 89 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 47 54 55 Ovary 37 41 53 Pancreas 3 3 4 Prostate 67 75 97 Urinary bladder 73 78 82Slide 41
Psychosocial Factors in SurvivalSlide 42
"Battling Spirit" and Cancer Those who battle irately against the conclusion survive longer Depression and misery appeared to foresee an expanded danger of passing on in 5 yearsSlide 43
Social Support and Cancer After controlling for early location and treatment wedded individuals lived longer. Instrument appears
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