Man and Environment .


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Man and Environment. doc. dr. Vaidotas V ai
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Man and Environment doc. dr. Vaidotas V ai š is

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Main data Dr. Vaidotas Vaisis Vice-executive of research board, assoc. prof. of Environmental assurance division. CR 407 room. Site page: http://e-stud.vgtu.lt/clients/?id=3142&lang=en Phone: (+370 5) 274 49 54 E-mail: vaidotas.vaisis@adm.vtu.lt

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Man and Environment Literature: V. Oškinis. Condition Part I. Preparing book, Vilnius Technika, 2004 A. Basalykas. Žemė - žmonijos buveinė. Vilnius. Alma Littera, 1999 R. Gražulevičienė. Žmogaus ekologija. Kaunas, VDU leidykla, 2002 D. Heinrich, M. Hergt. Ekologijos atlasas. Vilnius, Alma Littera, 2000 V. Stravinskienė. Bendroji ekologija. Kaunas, Šviesa,2003 R. Juknys. Aplinkotyros pagrindai. Kaunas, V DU leidykla, 2002

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Introduction Nowadays an enormous increment of open enthusiasm for ecological quality, yet there is not stream a coordinated art of the earth, with built up standards or even many substantiated speculations. This absence of a reasonable structure for seeing how man and condition associates cause numerous natural issues. This course is centered around man-condition connections – haw man influences condition. All in all the assortment, power and spread of ecological change by man is quickening. The reasons of our poor understanding and unsafe treatment of condition could be set up by these focuses [Thomas R. Detwyler]: Most of the characteristic sciences have regarded their subjects as man did not exist and influence nature. Nature is falsely partitioned into independent segment for study. Man-ecological research has been not adequate assessed since 1930s. Olla pied and specialized sciences were situated "underway" of products and ecological viewpoints were set as "social expenses".

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Towards an Integrated Science of Environment It is fundamental that man build up a coordinated art of condition for illuminating his exacerbating effects. To help his advancement we may characterize some essential necessities for this science and draw valuable ideas from existing sciences.

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Processes of ecological associations The material science of Newton, the topography of Lyell, and the science Darwin give early cases of logical breakthrouts that came about because of looking past the what and where of nature to ask into the why and how. This move from portrayal to progression.

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An interdisciplinary, coordinated perspective Only blend of bio insect techo sciences could be utilized for ecological assessment. Perspective of human science – man is in the focal point of studies, normal science – man is one sort of the animal groups. "Mission situated research" is great mindset.

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Man as a basic constrain While advances have adjusted condition for man, individuals have dismiss the impacts of man on condition. All progressions ought to be assessed from man affect perspective. Reference Thomas R. Detwyler. Man\'s Impact on Environment. McGaw-Hill book organization, 1971, 731 p.

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Humans assume a prevailing part in biological communities

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Ecology and Geography Ecology and Geography are supposed ecological sciences which has nearest commitment to man and condition. Meanings of Ecology : "The investigation of connections amongst creatures and their surroundings" More exact definition is made by Pierre Dansereaus [Dansereau, 1957, p. 323): "The investigation of the response of plants and creatures to their quick condition, to their natural surroundings" Ecological reviews have normally focused on the relationschips between life forms themselves (with minimal genuine respect for the physical condition) and for the most part at the size of the burn field. It is not astonishing that a number of the standards of nature don\'t make a difference to man in the earth. Not at all like scientists, geographers have tended to study wide spatial examples and relations of man and scene.

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Man\'s Impact on Environment What is man doing to condition? To concentrate on this question I propose to take a gander at the titles of logical works which were made: Man and nature; Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action [George Perkins Marsh] Man\'s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth [William L. Thomas] Feasible answers for most natural issues are an unpredictable mix of ecological comprehension, legislative issues, financial matters, social states of mind, and mechanical ability.

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ECOLOGY-essentials and definitions Basics of environmental comprehension: Living things don\'t exist as disengaged people or gatherings of people. All life forms associate with others of their own species, with different species, and with the physical and concoction situations that encompass them. All creatures affect each other and their environment. No living beings exists totally without anyone else\'s input, it is a piece of a group living beings which interface and have impact on each other and their condition.

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Science of ECOLOGY Sinecology - some portion of nature which investigate groups, elements of biological systems, structure, associations with condition, association, exchange of vitality and materials. Paleocology – past Neoecology – these days Autoecology – some portion of nature which dissect connections between people, species, and their populace with condition. Environment of populaces – break down development of populace of correct species, conditions, structure, progression and working. Factorical biology – investigate connections of living life forms with condition, effect of condition on life forms, their sorts and populaces, adjustments systems.

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The life forms in a domain are gathered together at various levels : Species Population Community Ecosystem

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Species - a characteristic gathering of really or possibly interbreeding people reproductively confined from other such gatherings. An animal categories is the littlest taxonomical gathering of creatures that can really breed with each other and have fruitful posterity. A jackass and a donkey are diverse animal varieties in light of the fact that their posterity are sterile. A smaller than expected poodle and an extraordinary dane are similar species in light of the fact that their posterity would be prolific, albeit conceivably appalling.

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Population - every one of the people of a given animal groups in a characterized region. We are individuals from the number of inhabitants in people on this vessel, the number of inhabitants in people in the British Virgin Islands, and the number of inhabitants in people on this planet.

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Community - The gathering of the species populaces that have a tendency to happen together in a specific geological region. We are individuals from the group of species populaces that live on this vessel, alongside the number of inhabitants in cockroaches under your sleeping cushions, and growths in your marine head, and so forth

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Ecosystem - The people group or arrangement of groups and their encompassing condition. This incorporates both the physical and concoction condition; that is the stones, metals, scents (pheromones), water, and air. Practical unit of variable size made out of living and nonliving parts, which connect. Segment parts of the entire framework work through a succession of operations including vitality and the exchange of vitality. Parts of biological system - biotic (life forms) and abiotic (physical and synthetic factosrs).

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Other definitions: HABITAT: the territory, site and specific sort of neighborhood condition possessed by a life form PHYSIOGNOMY: the portrayal of the presence of the vegetation, e. g. prairie, deserts. BIOSPHERE alludes to that piece of the earth planet that is possessed by life forms. TROPHIC alludes to bolstering and nourishment of living beings.

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Structure in biological systems The general environment of a group of living beings is known as the macrohabitat . It is partitioned into littler units called microhabitats . Environmentally related species possess the microhabitats . The cooperating group of living beings and the abiotic variables of the territory constitute the environment . An environment is a substance with numerous physical and natural measurements.

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In earthbound natural surroundings, vegetation significantly impacts physical and concoction calculates the environment and therefore the occupant creature populaces. Overwhelming species are the most powerful in the living space. Prevailing types of plants impact the wind, temperature, stickiness, light power, water and supplements. This thusly decides the creature species that live in the natural surroundings. Earthbound natural surroundings have an outward presentation because of the kind of vegetation living in the range. This appearance is alluded to as the physiognomy of the territory. E.g. needle-leaf backwoods, meadow, wide leaf woods, tropical wilderness.

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The working of a group depends on vitality changes . Photosynthesis is the base of all vitality changes in the biological community. Plants change over light (brilliant vitality) into concoction vitality. This substance vitality is put away in the groups of plants generally as proteins, starches and oils. Starch is the main vitality putting away substance in plants. Living beings that portable photosynthesis are called makers .

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Autotrophs Photoautotrophs : infer vitality through photosynthesis in chloroplasts, diminish inorganic sources utilizing\'s sun oriented radiation. Chemoautotrophs : a few microbes utilize vitality put away in concoction bonds inside the earth framework ie microorganisms Thiobacillus utilizes Sulfur mixes as vitality source in remote ocean vents. Ricklefs (2000)

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Heterotrophs: get vitality from created natural matter, they expend different living beings Ricklefs (2000)

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Decomposers : - transformers, reducers ; - take dead nudge & purchasers separate them to rudimentary supplements - make supplements accessible for re-cycling Ricklefs (2000)

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In an environment, herbivores feast upon plants. Carnivores go after herbivore

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