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Oceanic Energy. Professor S.R. Lawrence Leeds School of Business University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80305. Renewable Hydro Power Wind Energy Oceanic Energy Solar Power Geothermal Biomass. Sustainable Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Nuclear Fossil Fuel Innovation Exotic Technologies
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Slide 1

Maritime Energy Professor S.R. Lawrence Leeds School of Business University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80305

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Renewable Hydro Power Wind Energy Oceanic Energy Solar Power Geothermal Biomass Sustainable Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Nuclear Fossil Fuel Innovation Exotic Technologies Integration Distributed Generation Course Outline

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Overview Tidal Power Technologies Environmental Impacts Economics Future Promise Wave Energy Technologies Environmental Impacts Economics Future Promise Assessment Oceanic Energy Outline

Slide 4

Overview of Oceanic Energy

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Sources of New Energy Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Global Primary Energy Sources 2002 Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Renewable Energy Use – 2001 Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Tidal Power

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Tidal Motions Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Tidal Forces Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Natural Tidal Bottlenecks Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Tidal Energy Technologies 1. Tidal Turbine Farms 2. Tidal Barrages (dams)

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1. Tidal Turbine Farms

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Tidal Turbines (MCT Seagen) 750 kW – 1.5 MW 15 – 20 m rotors 3 m monopile 10 – 20 RPM Deployed in multi-unit cultivates or exhibits Like a wind cultivate, yet Water 800x denser than air Smaller rotors More firmly dispersed MCT Seagen Pile http://www.marineturbines.com/technical.htm

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Direct drive to generator No gearboxes Gravity base Versus an exhausted establishment Fixed pitch turbine cutting edges Improved unwavering quality But exchanges off productivity Tidal Turbines (Swanturbines) http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/tidal.htm

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Deeper Water Current Turbine Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Oscillates here and there 150 kW model operational (2003) Plans for 3 – 5 MW models Oscillating Tidal Turbine http://www.engb.com Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Vertical turbine sharp edges Rotates under a fastened ring 50 m in distance across 20 m profound 600 tons Max control 12 MW Polo Tidal Turbine Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Power from Land Tides (!) http://www.geocities.com/newideasfromtelewise/tidalpowerplant.htm

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Advantages of Tidal Turbines Low Visual Impact Mainly, if not completely submerged. Low Noise Pollution Sound levels transmitted are low High Predictability Tides anticipated years ahead of time, not at all like twist High Power Density Much littler turbines than twist turbines for similar power http://ee4.swan.ac.uk/egormeja/index.htm

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Disadvantages of Tidal Turbines High support costs High power circulation costs Somewhat restricted upside limit Intermittent power era

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2. Tidal Barrage Schemes

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Definitions Barrage A simulated dam to build the profundity of water for use in water system or route, or for this situation, creating power. Surge The ascent of the tide toward land (rising tide) Ebb The arrival of the tide to the ocean (falling tide)

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Potential Tidal Barrage Sites Only around 20 locales on the planet have been recognized as could be expected under the circumstances tidal blast stations Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Schematic of Tidal Barrage Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Cross Section of a Tidal Barrage http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/map book/htmlu/tidal.html

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Tidal Barrage Bulb Turbine Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Tidal Barrage Rim Generator Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Tidal Barrage Tubular Turbine Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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La Rance Tidal Power Barrage Rance River estuary, Brittany (France) Largest in world Completed in 1966 24 × 10 MW knob turbines (240 MW) 5.4 meter breadth Capacity element of ~40% Maximum yearly vitality: 2.1 TWh Realized yearly vitality: 840 GWh Electric cost: 3.7¢/kWh Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005

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La Rance Tidal Power Barrage http://www.stacey.peak-media.co.uk/Brittany2003/Rance/Rance.htm

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La Rance River, Saint Malo

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La Rance Barrage Schematic Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Cross Section of La Rance Barrage http://www.calpoly.edu/~cm/studpage/nsmallco/clapper.htm

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La Rance Turbine Exhibit

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Tidal Barrage Energy Calculations R = extend (stature) of tide (in m) A = region of tidal pool (in km 2 ) m = mass of water g = 9.81 m/s 2 = gravitational steady = 1025 kg/m 3 = thickness of seawater  0.33 = limit consider (20-35%) kWh per tidal cycle Assuming 706 tidal cycles for every year (12 hrs 24 min for every cycle) Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005

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La Rance Barrage Example = 33% R = 8.5 m A = 22 km 2 GWh/yr Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005

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Proposed Severn Barrage (1989) Never developed, yet informative Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Proposed Severn Barrage (1989) Severn River estuary Border amongst Wales and England 216 × 40 MW turbine generators (9.0m dia) 8,640 MW add up to limit 17 TWh normal vitality yield Ebb era with stream pumping 16 km (9.6 mi) add up to torrent length £8.2 ($15) billion assessed cost (1988)

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Severn Barrage Layout Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Severn Barrage Proposal Effect on Tide Levels Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Severn Barrage Proposal Power Generation after some time Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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~$15 billion (1988 costs) Severn Barrage Proposal Capital Costs Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005

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~10¢/kWh (1989 costs) Severn Barrage Proposal Energy Costs Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Severn Barrage Proposal Capital Costs versus Energy Costs 1p  2 ¢ Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Offshore Tidal Lagoon Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Array of vertical pivot tidal turbines No impact on tide levels Less natural effect than a blast 1000 MW top (600 MW normal) fences soon Tidal Fence Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Promising Tidal Energy Sites http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/map book/htmlu/tidalsites.html

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Tidal Barrage Environmental Factors Changes in estuary biological systems Less variety in tidal range Fewer mud pads Less turbidity – clearer water More light, more life Accumulation of residue Concentration of contamination in sediment Visual disarray

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Advantages of Tidal Barrages High consistency Tides anticipated years ahead of time, not at all like twist Similar to low-head dams Known innovation Protection against surges Benefits for transportation (connect) Some ecological advantages http://ee4.swan.ac.uk/egormeja/index.htm

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Disadvantages of Tidal Turbines High capital costs Few alluring tidal power destinations overall Intermittent power era Silt amassing behind flood Accumulation of toxins in mud Changes to estuary biological system

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Wave Energy

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Wave Structure Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Wave Frequency and Amplitude Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Wave Patterns after some time Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Wave Power Calculations H s 2 = Significant wave tallness – 4x rms water rise (m) T e = avg time between upward developments crosswise over mean (s) P = Power in kW per meter of wave peak length Example : H s 2 = 3m and T e = 10s

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Global Wave Energy Averages Average wave vitality (est.) in kW/m (kW per meter of wave length) http://www.wavedragon.net/innovation/wave-energy.htm

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Wave Energy Potential of 1,500 – 7,500 TWh/year 10 and half of the world\'s yearly power request IEA (International Energy Agency) 200,000 MW introduced wave and tidal vitality control figure by 2050 Power creation of 6 TWh/y Load element of 0.35 DTI and Carbon Trust (UK) "Autonomous of the distinctive appraisals the potential for a contamination free vitality era is huge." http://www.wavedragon.net/innovation/wave-energy.htm

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Wave Energy Technologies

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Wave Concentration Effects Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Tapered Channel (Tapchan) http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/ocean.html

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Oscillating Water Column http://www.oceansatlas.com/unatlas/utilizes/EnergyResources/Background/Wave/W2.html

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Oscillating Column Cross-Section Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Completed 2000 Scottish Isles Two counter-turning Wells turbines Two generators 500 kW max control LIMPET Oscillating Water Column Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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"Strong Whale" Design – Japan http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec/MTD/Whale/

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Might Whale Design Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

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Turbines for Wave Energy Turbine utilized as a part of Mighty Whale Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jams

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