Martin Luther Lord, Jr., waving to the group at the Lincoln Dedication amid the Walk on Washington, D.C. (1963)..

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Social liberties Activism, new enactment, and the Preeminent Court advance equivalent rights for African Americans. However, differences among social equality bunches lead to a brutal period for the social equality development.
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Social equality Activism, new enactment, and the Supreme Court development equivalent rights for African Americans. Be that as it may, differences among social liberties gatherings lead to a brutal period for the social equality development. Martin Luther King, Jr., waving to the group at the Lincoln Memorial amid the March on Washington, D.C. (1963). NEXT

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Taking on Segregation SECTION 1 SECTION 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade Challenges and Changes in the Movement SECTION 3 Civil Rights NEXT

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Section 1 Taking on Segregation Activism and a progression of Supreme Court choices development equivalent rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s. NEXT

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SECTION 1 Image Taking on Segregation The Segregation System Plessy v. Ferguson Civil Rights Act of 1875 act prohibited isolation In 1883, all-white Supreme Court proclaims Act unlawful 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision: isolate yet break even with sacred Many states pass Jim Crow laws isolating the races Facilities for blacks constantly sub-par compared to those for whites Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 1 proceeded with The Segregation System Segregation Continues into the 20 th Century After Civil War, African Americans go north to escape prejudice North: lodging on the whole dark ranges, whites dislike work rivalry A Developing Civil Rights Movement WW II makes openings for work for African Americans Need for battling men makes military end oppressive approaches FDR closes government, war commercial enterprises separation Returning dark veterans battle for social equality at home NEXT

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SECTION 1 Challenging Segregation in Court The NAACP Legal Strategy Professor Charles Hamilton Houston drives NAACP legitimate crusade Focuses on most glaring imbalances of isolated state funded training Places group of law understudies under Thurgood Marshall -win 29 out of 32 cases contended in the witness of Supreme Court Brown v. Leading body of Education Marshall’s most noteworthy triumph is Brown v. Leading body of Education of Topeka In 1954 case, Court collectively strikes down school isolation NEXT

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SECTION 1 Reaction to the Brown Decision Resistance to School Desegregation Within 1 year, more than 500 school areas integrate Some locale, state authorities, professional white gatherings effectively oppose Court hands Brown II , orders integration at “all planned speed” Eisenhower declines to uphold consistence; thinks of it as outlandish Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 1 Image proceeded with Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock Since 1948, Arkansas coordinating state college, private gatherings Gov. Orval Faubus has National Guard dismiss dark understudies Elizabeth Eckford confronts harsh group when she tries to enter school Eisenhower has Nat. Watch, paratroopers direct school participation African-American understudies bugged by whites at school all year 1957 Civil Rights Act—federal government control over schools, voting NEXT

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SECTION 1 Image The Montgomery Bus Boycott Boycotting Segregation 1955 NAACP officer Rosa Parks captured for not surrendering seat on transport Montgomery Improvement Association framed, composes transport blacklist Elect 26-year-old Baptist minister Martin Luther King, Jr. pioneer Walking for Justice African Americans document claim, blacklist transports, use carpools, walk Get support from dark group, outside gatherings, thoughtful whites 1956, Supreme Court fugitives transport isolation NEXT

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SECTION 1 Martin Luther King and the SCLC Changing the World with Soul Force King calls his image of peaceful resistance “soul force” -common defiance, monstrous exhibits King stays peaceful in face of roughness after Brown choice From the Grassroots Up King, others discovered Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) By 1960, African-American understudies consider pace change too moderate Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) NEXT

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SECTION 1 Image The Movement Spreads Demonstrating for Freedom SNCC embraces peacefulness, yet calls for more fierce methodology Influenced by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to utilize sit-ins : -decline to leave isolated lunch counter until served First sit-in at Greensboro, NC Woolworth’s indicated across the nation on TV regardless of misuse, captures, development develops, spreads to North Late 1960, lunch counters integrated in 48 urban communities in 11 states NEXT

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Section 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade Civil rights activists break through racial obstructions. Their activism prompts milestone enactment. NEXT

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SECTION 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade Riding for Freedom CORE’s Freedom Rides • 1961, CORE tests Court choice banning interstate transport isolation • Freedom riders —blacks, whites sit, utilization station offices together • Riders fiercely beaten by Alabama swarms; one transport firebombed New Volunteers Bus organizations decline to keep conveying CORE opportunity riders SNCC volunteers supplant CORE riders; are viciously halted Robert Kennedy weights transport organization to keep transporting riders Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 2 kept Riding for Freedom Arrival of Federal Marshals Alabama authorities don’t give guaranteed insurance; crowd assaults riders Newspapers all through country decry beatings JFK sends 400 U.S. marshals to ensure riders Attorney general, Interstate Commerce Commission act: -boycott isolation in all interstate travel offices NEXT

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SECTION 2 Standing Firm Integrating Ole Miss 1962, government court rules James Meredith may select at U of MS Governor Ross Barnett declines to let Meredith register JFK orders elected marshals to escort Meredith to registrar’s office Barnett makes radio request; a large number of white demonstrators riot Federal authorities go with Meredith to classes, secure his guardians Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 2 Image kept Standing Firm Heading into Birmingham April 1963, SCLC exhibit to integrate Birmingham King captured, composes “Letter from Birmingham Jail” TV news show police assaulting youngster marchers—fire hoses, puppies, clubs Continued challenges, financial blacklist, awful squeeze end isolation Kennedy Takes a Stand June, JFK sends troops to constrain Gov. Wallace to integrate U of AL NAACP’s Medgar Evers killed; hung juries lead to killer’s discharge NEXT

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SECTION 2 Marching to Washington The Dream of Equality August 1963, more than 250,000 individuals merge on Washington Speakers request quick entry of social equality bill King gives “I Have a Dream” discourse More Violence September, 4 Birmingham young ladies murdered when bomb tossed into chapel LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964 -disallows segregation due to race, religion, sexual orientation NEXT

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SECTION 2 Fighting for Voting Rights Freedom Summer • Freedom Summer —CORE, SNCC venture to enlist blacks to vote in MS • Volunteers beaten, slaughtered; organizations, homes, places of worship copied A New Political Party Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party framed to get seat in MS party • Fannie Lou Hamer —voice of MFDP at National Convention—wins bolster LBJ reasons for alarm losing Southern white vote, weights pioneers to trade off MFDP and SNCC supporters feel deceived Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 2 Chart kept Fighting for Voting Rights The Selma Campaign 1965, voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma, AL King leads 600 dissent marchers; TV shows police savagely stop them Second walk, with government insurance, swells to 25,000 individuals Voting Rights Act of 1965 Congress at long last passes Voting Rights Act of 1965 Stops education tests, permits elected authorities to enlist voters Increases dark voter enlistment NEXT

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Section 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement Disagreements among social equality gatherings and the ascent of dark patriotism make a vicious period in the battle for social equality. NEXT

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SECTION 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement African Americans Seek Greater Equality Northern Segregation • De facto isolation exists by practice, custom; issue in North • De jure isolation is isolation needed by law • WW II dark relocation to Northern urban communities results in “white flight” • 1960s, most urban blacks live in ghettos; landowners overlook laws • Black unemployment twice as high as white • Many blacks furious at treatment got from white cops Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 3 proceeded with African Americans Seek Greater Equality Urban Violence Erupts Mid-1960s, various conflicts between white power, dark regular folks -numerous outcome in mobs Many whites astounded by African-American fierceness Blacks need, need equivalent open door in employments, lodging, instruction Money for War on Poverty, Great Society diverted to Vietnam War NEXT

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SECTION 3 Image New Leaders Voice Discontent African-American Solidarity • Nation of Islam , Black Muslims, supporter blacks separate from whites -trust whites wellspring of dark issues • Malcolm X —controversial Muslim pioneer, speaker; gets much exposure • Frightens whites, moderate blacks; loathed by other Black Muslims Ballots or Bullets? Journey to Mecca changes Malcolm X’s state of mind toward whites Splits with Black Muslims; is executed in 1965 while giving discourse Continued . . . NEXT

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SECTION 3 proceeded with New Leaders Voice Discontent Black Power • CORE, SNCC turn out to be more aggressor; SCLC seeks after conventional strategies • Stokely Carmichael , head of SNCC, calls for Black Power : -African Americans control own lives, groups, without whites Black Panthers • Black Panthers battle police severity, need dark independence • Preach thoughts of Mao Zedong; have fierce enc

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