Material science 306 (Fundamental Cosmology) Fall 2006 Educator: Dr. Alexey Belyanin (979) 845-7785, Room ENPH 509 Email.

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Material science 306 (Essential Space science) Fall 2006 Educator: Dr. Alexey Belyanin (979) 845-7785, Room ENPH 509 Email: Available time - 12:45-14:45 TTR, or by arrangement
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Material science 306 (Basic Astronomy) Fall 2006 Instructor: Dr. Alexey Belyanin (979) 845-7785, Room ENPH 509 Email: Office Hours - 12:45-14:45 TTR, or by arrangement The reading material is Foundations of Astronomy, Ninth Edition, by Michael Seeds (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007).

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Homework: 10% of the evaluation Use WebAssign to get and submit assignments:

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Evaluation 3 mid-term exams: 20% of the last grade every Final exam: 30% of the last grade Homework: 10% of the evaluation Use WebAssign to get and submit assignments: you have a pardoned nonattendance for a mid-term exam, the evaluation for one exam can be dropped in ascertaining the last normal. You are permitted to bring one 8.5" x 11" page with equations (on one side) for each exam. You can bring three such pages for the last. With this “cheat sheet” you don’t need to retain all recipes. Notwithstanding, you have to comprehend them!

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Level of math utilized: You will utilize straightforward variable based math and some rudimentary capacities, for example, logarithms and types. Forces of 10 will happen constantly so the capacity to work with logical documentation is critical. I will give you fundamental math foundation; be that as it may, some of you may require additional practice to invigorate your center school math.

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We will utilize metric units. See Appendix A for definitions, tables, and other essential information. Mars Climate Orbiter 1999 Remember and check UNITS for all terms in the recipes!!! Demonstrate units on your recipe sheet Express all terms in right units before connecting to the equation Check your response for right unit

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Attendance is vital. We will drop/include and revamp some material when contrasted with the reading material Advantages of taking classes over self-study Fighting inborn sluggishness Maintaining a legitimate pace Distinguishing vital subjects from less critical ones Learning supplementary materials too Someone is prepared to answer questions

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From the Fall 2005

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Why space science is enjoyable to consider and to instruct In each address, we achieve the outskirts of human information Crossroads of material science, science, science, reasoning, … Breakthrough revelations happen consistently All scales from basic particles (10 - 15 m) to the Hubble sweep (10 26 m) are included; all timescales from 10 - 43 s to 10 years No need in advanced devices to do perceptions and make disclosures

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Structure of the course Scale and structure of the Universe The night sky History of stargazing Celestial mechanics Astronomical devices The Sun Birth, life, and demise of stars Galaxies Cosmology The Solar System Life in the Universe

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Chapter 1: setting the stage Our place in the Universe Scales and separations

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Milky Way Galaxy 25,000 light years, Or ~ 8 kpc, or 2.5x10 17 km 200 billion stars Galactic year = 225 million yr Our sun is 4.6 billion yr old

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“Milky Way” – a smooth patch of stars that rings the Earth Galactos = milk in Greek

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Galileo found that the Milky Way is comprised of stars

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Hubble Deep Field 10 day introduction photograph! More than 1500 cosmic systems in a spot 1/30 the distance across of the Moon 10 11 worlds in the discernible universe Farthest and most seasoned items are 12-13 billion ly away! Space perceptions as a time machine

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10 7 m Earth span = 6378.164 km

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 9 m Radius of Moon’s circle = 384000 km

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 11 m 1 Astronomical Unit = 1.5 ï‚\' 10 11 m

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 13 m Mean sweep of Pluto’s circle = 40 AU Pluto downgraded to a diminutive person planet on August 24, 2006!

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The Kuiper Belt – home for brief period comets and smaller person planets Starting in 1992, stargazers have gotten to be mindful of a limitless populace of little bodies circling the sun past Neptune. There are no less than 70,000 "trans-Neptunians" with widths bigger than 100 km in the spiral zone amplifying outwards from the circle of Neptune (at 30 AU) to 50 AU.

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1-day movement of Varuna

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2003 UB313 “Xena”: the biggest smaller person planet so far R = 2400 +-100 km – bigger than Pluto! Pluto: R = 1185 km

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HST picture of Xena

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Voyagers 1 and 2 Launched in 1977, Voyager 1 is presently 100 AU from the Sun! (12 light-hours, or 15 billion km) The most inaccessible human-made article in the Universe

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The Oort Cloud – wellspring of long stretch comets The comets that will probably be effortlessly obvious are much rarer, and are thought to originate from an incredible circular billow of cometary material encompassing the Solar System called the Oort Cloud . This circle is a light year (50,000 A. U.) in sweep, yet the aggregate mass of cometary material in this cloud is most likely not as much as that of the Earth. Once in a while a comet in this cloud is aggravated gravitationally, for instance by a passing star, and began on a long curved or explanatory circle toward the Sun. These long stretch comets are basically in charge of the brighter comets watched truly.

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 17 m

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Proxima Centauri (Alpha Centauri C) Distance to  Cen C = 4.2 ly = 1.3 pc = 4 ï‚\'10 16 m

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Need to present new units of separation 1 light-year (ly)  10 16 m 1 ly = cï‚\'1 year (the separation the light goes in 1 year) Velocity of light in vacuum c = 3 ï‚\'10 8 m/s 1 year  3.1 ï‚\' 10 7 s 1 parsec (pc)  3.26 ly  3 ï‚\'10 16 m 1 kpc = 1000 pc; 1 Mpc = 1 million pc; 1 Gpc = 1 billion pc

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Huge segregation of stars: Distance between stars = 10 7 Star breadth The time expected to reach Proxima with current shuttles: Looking through space = go in time!

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 19 m

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Local Bubble Density ~ 0.05 molecules/cm 3 Temperature ~ 10 5 K Remnant of supernova blast?

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Milky Way Galaxy ï‚\' 10 2 10 21 m 10 kpc 100 billion stars

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 23 m Neighboring universes: Mpc scale

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Groups bunches superclusters

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ï‚\' 10 2 10 25 m 500 Mpc scale

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10 17 m = 3 pc separation between stars 10 7 m planets 10 9 m Sun 10 11 m = 1 AU Solar System 10 21 m = 10 kpc world 10 25 m = 100 Mpc Largest structure 10 26 m = Gpc Hubble span Distance scale Looking through space = go in time!

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Contents of the Universe 97% of all normal (baryonic) matter is in stars Only 3-5% of matter in the Universe is baryonic! 27% is icy dull matter 70% is dim vitality

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Dark matter as a gravitatio

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