Matt Markon, Esq. 202-467-8727 .

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Stalking and Disability. What is stalking?Defined by statuteCommon subject present in all statutesCommon perceptionsWhat is disability?How do we characterize it?What statutes do we utilize?. What is a Disability?. Any physical, tactile, or mental debilitation or any blend of these. What is dangerous with this meaning of inability?.
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Matt Markon, Esq. 202-467-8727

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Stalking and Disability What is stalking? Characterized by statute Common subject present in all statutes Common observations What is handicap? How would we characterize it? What statutes do we utilize?

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What is a Disability? Any physical, tangible, or mental hindrance or any blend of these

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What is dangerous with this meaning of handicap? It doesn\'t generally help us. "Debilitated people" is so expansive to be inane. Distinctive "handicaps" convey diverse difficulties to the expert "What challenges does this case display?"

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What is Stalking? Stalking by and large alludes to rehashed bothering or undermining conduct putting someone else in dread.

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Stalking Can apparently non-undermining conduct be stalking? Case from Tom Kirkman Context is EVERYTHING!!!

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Prevalence of Stalking 1 out of each 12 U.S. Ladies (8.2 million) and 1 out of each 45 U.S. men (2 million) has been stalked sooner or later. Assessed 1.4 million individuals are stalked every year. Grounds Study: 13.1% of school ladies were stalked amid a one semester overview.

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Relationship to Stalker: 77% of female casualties are stalked by somebody they know. 23% of female stalking casualties are stalked by outsiders. NVAW Study (1998)

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Stalking, DV & Sexual Assault 81% of stalking casualties who were stalked by a personal accomplice announced that they had additionally been physically ambushed by that accomplice. 31% were likewise sexually attacked by that accomplice >>>NVAW Study (1998)

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Prevalence– Femicide Study 76% of femicide cases required no less than one scene of stalking inside 12 months preceding the murder. 85% of endeavored femicide cases required no less than one scene of stalking inside 12 months before the endeavored kill.

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Physical Abuse and Stalking 67% of femicide casualties had been physically mishandled by their private accomplice in the 12 months before the murder. 89% of femicide casualties who had been physically manhandled had likewise been stalked in the 12 months before the murder.

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Reports to Law Enforcement 54% of femicide casualties revealed stalking to police before they were slaughtered by their stalkers. 46% of endeavored femicide casualties revealed stalking to police before the endeavored kill.

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Victim\'s Reactions Sociologist Jennifer Dunn, PhD investigated casualty\'s reactions to stalking by previous cozy accomplices. Pursuing Disaster: Intimate Stalking, Culture, and Criminal Justice , Jennifer L. Dunn

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Four Types of Victim Reactions Active resistance Threats to call 911; Physical battle; Recording stalker\'s conduct Help looking for Calling police; Escorted to auto; Screaming for help Coping to decrease peril Screening calls or evolving number; Moving; Staying with family or companions; Hiding Coping by conforming to stalker\'s requests Visiting stalker; Going spots with stalker; Continuing sexual relations with stalker; Requesting case be dropped

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Are the stalking measurements the same for casualties with incapacities?

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Women with inabilities encounter the most astounding rate of individual viciousness – savagery on account of life partners, accomplices, sweethearts, relatives, guardians, and outsiders – of any gathering in our general public today. Abramson, W., Emanuel, E., Gaylord, V., & Hayden, M. (Eds.). (2000). Affect: Feature Issue on Violence Against Women with Developmental or Other Disabilities, 13 (3). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.

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Each year, almost 10 thousand ladies and youngsters turn out to be for all time hearing impeded because of being over and over struck on or close to the ear. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; National Institutes of Health, National Strategic Research Plan (1989) An investigation of 482 youngsters with recorded abuse assessed at the Center for Abused Handicapped Children at Boys Town Research Hospital in Omaha, NE, uncovers that the greater part (53.4%) of the hard of hearing kids report being sexually mishandled. Sullivan, P.M., Vernon, M., & Scanlan, J., 1987. "Sexual manhandle of hard of hearing youth." American Annals of the Deaf, 132, 256-62.

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"Studies recommend that rationally debilitated individuals are no less than four circumstances more probable than different Americans to be focuses of rape and other viciousness. A few reviews show that more than 75 percent of rationally handicapped ladies are sexually manhandled." Justice Dept. foundation on wrongdoing against the debilitated: Published by the Institute on Community Integration ( UAP ) · Research and Training Center on Community Living Volume 13 · Number 3 · Fall 2000

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Persons with formative incapacities have a high danger of being sexually mishandled. One scientist assesses that 90% of individuals with formative handicaps will be sexually deceived in their lifetime, yet just 3% of the attacks will ever be accounted for. Sobsey, D. & Doe, T. (1991) Patterns of sexual mishandle and attack. Sexuality and Disability, 9 (3), 243-259; Tyiska, 1998) Tyiska, C. (1998). Working with casualties of wrongdoing with incapacities (OVC Bulletin). Washington, D.C: U.S. Branch of Justice..

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Stalking and Disabilities Have a few things in like manner They aren\'t being recognized Response to them is deficient

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Are inabilities being distinguished? What number of sanctuaries are checking for TBI, blackouts? Casualties are named as fringe when they miss arrangements Are they getting some information about earlier episodes of unconsiosness? What number of are really having casualties evaluated for injury related mental issues? (not trying to say it is ptsd)

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Is stalking being recognized? Autonomous living focuses Are they notwithstanding taking a gander at stalking? Do they have convention set up? Covers? S/A projects?

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There are NO profiles of stalkers!

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What we can say in regards to stalkers Many Stalkers have: Above normal knowledge Dependant identities Controlling identities Relationship stalkers have a tendency to have Personality Disorders Often Narcissistic, Antisocial as well as Borderline

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Psychology of Stalking: Wright, Burgess, Burgess, Laszlo, McCrary and Douglas (1996). A Typology of Interpersonal Stalking (Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 11 No. 4, Dec 1996)

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Categories of Stalkers Nondomestic Stalker Organized Delusional Domestic Stalker

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Nondomestic Stalker No interpersonal association with casualty May target casualty from brief experience or essentially a perception Victim might be not able distinguish the stalker when first getting to be distinctly mindful of the stalking

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Relationship amongst stalker and casualty would one say one is way Anonymous interchanges Until the main correspondence – Victim is frequently unconscious Unknown character Casual contact – depicted to casualty - to tell the casualty that stalker is fit for completing dangers Relationship depends on stalker\'s mental obsession Fusion (stalker mixes his or her identity into the victim\'s) or Erotomania (dream of glorified love or profound union) or Narcissistic Linking Fantasy Command Hallucinations or Religious dream Organized Delusional

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Former relationship amongst stalker and casualty Victim mindful of stalking Prior mishandle or struggle with stalker ( Domestic Violence ) Stalker regularly looks to proceed or restore a relationship that casualty has endeavored to end Motivation develops into "On the off chance that I can\'t have her, nobody can." Victim will frequently express feeling "covered" in earlier relationship Murder/suicide Domestic Stalker

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Why do they stalk? Dismissal (genuine or envisioned) Threatens stalker\'s narcissistic dream of themselves (prevalent, insightful, essential, intense, appreciated, or that stalker\'s association with casualty is their fate) Stalker\'s dream of self + dismissal (genuine or envisioned) prompts to sentiments of s hame, embarrassment, lastly to wrath Stalking expands sentiments of Power & Control (strengthens narcissistic dream) Obsession and maladaptive methods for dealing with stress

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Stages of stalking Catalysation Development Harassment Intrusion Contact

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Catalysation Stalker has some association with casualty. Imply relationship Delusional relationship

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Development Stalker grows abnormal state of enthusiasm for casualty. Stalker longings to be the focal point of casualty\'s life. Stalker starts to feel extraordinary like or outrageous abhorrence of casualty.

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Harassment Victim gets to be distinctly mindful of the stalker Extreme love for casualty Telephone provocation Obscene calls, hang up calls and so on… Love notes, blossoms, cards, blessings and so on… Extreme abhorrence or disdain of casualty Vandalism Telephone badgering Threatening calls, quiet calls, hang up calls and so forth… Hate mail

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Intrusion Increased certainty of stalker Stalking feels great Position of force and control Feelings of prevalence Thrill of escaping with it

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Contact Physical Proximity Following, watching, driving by in auto Approaching casualty out in the open place Direct showdown out in the open Physical contact with casualty Violent act Mental manhandle (savage danger) Physical ambush Sexual attack Murder

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What makes Stalking troublesome for Law Enforcement? Fluctuating Activity Levels Over Several Years Incidents in Multiple Jurisdictions Difficult to Identify/Officer Misconceptions Course of Conduct Defines the Crime Single acts may just be unlawful inside general plan Few Witnesses Evidence (none; little; can\'t be attached to stalker) Law Enforcement Response Can Not Guarantee Stalking Will Stop

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What About Stalking Can Make It Easy to Investigate? Same Victim Same Offender Same Locations Stalking Is A Course of Conduc

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