Mohammed and the Ascent of Islam.


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loss of a significant part of the Eastern Roman Empire. to another religious and ... Muslims were being driven back to agnosticism. caliphs were getting to be sit still, degenerate, dictators ...
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Mohammed and the Rise of Islam 600\'s A.D. loss of a great part of the Eastern Roman Empire to another religious and political force Islam

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Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.

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Islam Bedouin Arab named Mohammed conceived ca. 570 A.D. Dealer family, Hasimites Qurayshis tribe, who rule Mecca controlling a great part of the religious explorer exchange raised by relatives - father and mother passed on by age six - raised by a devastated uncle

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Mohammed formal training ?? We don\'t know Normally just the Poets of the Tribes could read and compose business operator for an affluent dowager Khadijah managing processions from Mecca, north to Jerusalem contact with both Jews and Christians

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Mohammed, con\'t He appears to have made an impact on his manager, in view of his presumed genuineness wedded her and resigned from trade to dedicate himself to religion and to making society all the more reasonable and fair

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Mohammed, con\'t monogamous until his better half passed on in the end wedded nine spouses and had grouped mistresses last marriage at 53 to Aishah, little girl of a companion wives: dowagers of companions or political relational unions Women alone is such a world were exceptionally helpless

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Origins of Mohammed\'s Teachings times of obviousness are shown: clarifications disclosures from Allah by sacred stupors, addressed by Gabriel epilepsy or a comparable neurological issue? emotional instability or pipedreams ? Mohammed\'s clarification: divine revelations Very repulsive and agonizing for him

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The Quran Record of disclosures got amid dreams Committed to composing c. 650 CE, arranged (Muhammad bites the dust 632) Under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan Tradition of Muhammad\'s life: hadith

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Nature of Revelations various social, agrarian, restorative, military, galactic, and so forth

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Historical Origins of His Ideas Arab polytheism Hanifism: a faith in one God followed to Abraham, by custom Judaism Christianity: Orthodox, Nestorian, Arianism Manichaeism: a blend of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, et cetera

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Beginning of His Ministry at about age 40, after various disclosures started to lecture openly kept on getting disclosures until death normally identified with current issues or concerns Religious, political, social, financial

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Early religious vocation not especially effective undermined the social, political, and religious structure, with his tenet of social value debilitated the monetary premise of Mecca as a focal point of religious journey especially the Black Rock sacrosanct to the main divinity of the Arabs come up short on town, or possibly urged to leave Went to the desert with his family and lived for around a year

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The Hijra flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina) -convention: welcomed by the Jews of Medina 622 A.D. start of the Islamic schedule shapes the umma (group) invited, then opposed Mohammed turns into a flat out theocrat

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Muhammad\'s Return to Mecca Attack on Mecca, 630 - jihad Conversion of Mecca to Islam Destruction of agnostic locales, supplanted with mosques Ka\'aba protected to pay tribute to significance of Mecca Approved as journey site

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Jihad blessed war against Mecca ten year bar an arrangement was made

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The Deal Mecca saved as a sacred city and spot of journey to save the financial success the Ka\'aba safeguarded as the focal hallowed place symbols and symbols decimated story of its beginnings stressed the part of Abraham in its position journey as a demonstration of confidence, at any rate once in your life

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The Ka\'aba in Mecca

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The Religion: the Koran (Qu\'ran) the Koran (Qu\'ran): contains a lot of Mohammed describing of Allah\'s lessons composed around his adherents after his passing from notes and recollections, on "stones and materials" Short: 114 sections orchestrated from longest to the briefest not by subject or sequentially length is the foundation of request for the content

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The Koran, con\'t some "Old" and "New" Testaments stories yet now and again the story appears somewhat changed to Jews and Christians illustrations and tales political questioning and prediction "non-religious" subjects not at all like Jewish and Christian sacred writings in some ways

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Five Pillars of Islam uniqueness of God \'There is no god, yet God… .\' petition five times each day watch the month of Ramadan offer offerings to the poor journey to Mecca If conceivable, once in your life

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Additional lessons dietary laws no betting or drinking no sexual abnormalities, as characterized by convention and custom no defective weights or usury no child murder elaborate principles concerning legacy and property change in the status of ladies and youngsters

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Changing Status of Women Qu\'ran enhances status of ladies Outlawed female child murder Brides, not spouses, claim settlements Yet male strength saved Patrilineal plummet Polygamy allowed, Polyandry illegal Veil embraced from antiquated Mesopotamian rehearse

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Similarities to Judaism and Christianity monotheism (characterized a bit in an unexpected way) emphasis on the duty of people last judgment and prizes holy messengers and spirits routine of excellencies: honesty, empathy, and so forth

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Differences an accentuation on sympathy and kindness contributions giving moderate paradise considered a bit contrastingly no ministers or sacrosanct framework simple transformation: the Shahadah \'There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.\'

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Islamic Law: The Sharia Codification of Islamic law Based on Quran, hadith , legitimate schools of investigation Extends past custom law to all zones of human action This is the premise the possibility of an "Islamic republic" for occasion

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Expansion of Islam early triumphs renegades (tribes) rebuffed Apostasy = conspiracy = demise ambushes on: the Byzantine (Roman) domain the Persian realm

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Spread of Islam

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Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount Jerusalem

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Victories Syria: 635 A.D. Palestine: 636 A.D. Persia: caught in one fight venture into India development to the outskirts of China Egypt: help by neighborhood Christians North Africa: the Berbers

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Expansion, con\'t Spain 711-720 A.D. Clash of Tours: October 732 A.D. Charles Martel Siege of Constantinople: 717-718 A.D. Leo III Greek flame beginnings of Christian reconquest of previous Roman/Christian domain

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Reasons for achievement weariness of Rome and Persia End of a 400 year war patriot slants in Egypt and Syria contentions among Christian groups speed and size of Moslem armed forces effortlessness and uncomplicated nature of Islam acknowledgment of the Old and New Testament People of the Book

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Consequences of Expansion loss of the most seasoned and most focal terrains of Christendom supported the authority of the minister of Rome virtual breakdown of Zoroastrianism as a noteworthy religion drastically modified the equalization of force between the Roman Empire and the East interruption of the Mediterranean monetary group

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Early Problems Succession ? Mohammed had no surviving male youngsters Daughter: Fatima Son-in-law: Ali, offspring of his uncle produced a lasting split in the Islamic people group Sunnis Shi\'as

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Sunnis viewed themselves as the "conventional" adherents of Mohammed consider the Shi\'as to be "nonconformists" issue: who leads after Mohammed ?? the Caliph (or "pioneer") went progressively to adherents - Abu Bakr, then Oman - then Uthman and

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The Shia Disagreements over determination of caliphs Ali disregarded for Abu Bakr Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then killed alongside a large portion of his devotees Remaining adherents arrange separate gathering called "Shia" Traditionalists: Sunni

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Abu Bakr not especially well known with the Muslim people group permitted strike, then intrusions of Byzantine and Persian domain enslaved any protester components or tribes discarded any "new prophets"

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Success = strain achievement presented extravagance and change From unique caliphs to the Umayyad caliphs new thoughts and new ethnic gatherings with their own traditions and legacy, to attempt to absorb ascent of a kind of "Pentecostal component" Islam had strayed from its unique way and virtue Muslims were being driven back to agnosticism caliphs were getting to be inactive, degenerate, dictators

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Uthman: the third Caliph killed: fighting broke out Ali: cousin and child in-law of Mohammed initially ignored as excessively youthful challenged the progression Uthman upheld by the Umayyad family early adversaries of Mohammed declined to acknowledge Ali\'s cases

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Umayyeds fruitful in the war Ali killed in 661 A.D. by the Kharijites start of the Umayyed line

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Policy toward Conquered Peoples Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent Limited social portability for non-Arab Muslims Head charge (jizya) on non-Muslims Umayyad lavish living brings on additional decrease in good power

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Sunnis acknowledged the authenticity of early caliphs "Sunni" : from an Arabic word "utilization" or "custom" infers: "point of reference"

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Shi\'as acknowledged Ali word signifies: "party", "group", "taking after"

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Factions Sunni and Shi\'as prevailing initially political Eventually the distinctions got to be closed minded in accentuation Shi\'as turn into a gathering of religious difference

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Perceptions Sunni: moderate, for "the present state of affairs" agreement is the directing guideline Shi\'as: safeguards of the persecuted, pundits of benefit and power acquiescence is required just the length of it can be constrained, and no more

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Umayyed realm Atlantic Ocean to India Syria: focus of the Islamic World in the long run dislodged by the Abbasids an Arab family guaranteeing better than average from Mohammed

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The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE

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