Monograph 19 The Part of the Media in Advancing and Diminishing Tobacco Use.


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Monograph 19 The Part of the Media in Advancing and Decreasing Tobacco Use Editors Ronald M. Davis, M.D., Senior Logical Editorial manager Executive, Place for Wellbeing Advancement and Ailment Counteractive action, Henry Portage Wellbeing Framework, Detroit, MI
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Monograph 19 The Media\'s Role in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use

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Editors Ronald M. Davis, M.D., Senior Scientific Editor Director, Center for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI Elizabeth A. Gilpin, M.S. Clinical Professor of Biostatistics, Cancer Prevention & Control Program, University of California–San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA Barbara Loken, Ph.D. Teacher, Department of Marketing, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN K. Viswanath, Ph.D. Partner Professor, Department of Society, Human Development & Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA Melanie A. Wakefield, Ph.D., Senior Scientific Editor Director and NHMRC Principal Research Fellow, Center for Behavioral Research in Cancer, Cancer Control Research Institute, The Cancer Council Victoria, Victoria, Australia Stephen E. Marcus, Ph.D., Monograph Series Editor Epidemiologist, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD

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Preparation of this Monograph Multidisciplinary article group 23 contributing writers 62 outside associate commentators Step 1: Prepared blueprint, companion assessed, changed Step 2: Drafted parts, associate looked into, updated Step 3: Chapters converged into draft volume, companion explored, amended Step 4: Volume checked on by NCI and NIH, reconsidered once more, and settled into a 686-page monograph

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Highlights Most ebb and flow and exhaustive investigation of experimental proof on the media\'s part in empowering and debilitating tobacco utilize First government report to show complete conclusions that … there is a causal relationship between tobacco publicizing and advancement and expanded tobacco use; and there is a causal relationship between introduction to portrayals of smoking in motion pictures and youth smoking start.

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Overview and Conclusions

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Introduction Tobacco utilization is the single biggest reason for preventable passing in the United States (more than 400,000 unexpected losses for each year). In 1964, the first Surgeon General’s report on smoking and wellbeing cautioned people in general to the threats of cigarettes. Today, just about 1 in 5 American grown-ups smokes, and more than 4,000 youngsters smoke their first cigarette every day.

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Introduction (proceeded with) The extent of grown-ups who are present smokers has declined from 42% in 1965 to 21% in 2006. Youth smoking pervasiveness has additionally significantly declined. This monograph concentrates on an imperative wonder in tobacco advancement and control: mass interchanges.

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Introduction (proceeded with) The media\'s impact and its part in item promoting speak to one of the key improvements of cutting edge society. As mass correspondences have spanned social orders the world over, they have additionally amplified the effect of media on worldwide general wellbeing. In the event that present patterns proceed, more than one-half billion of the world’s current occupants are anticipated to lose their lives to tobacco utilization, underscoring the criticalness of looking at the media’s part in worldwide tobacco showcasing.

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Introduction (proceeded with) The media have a just as effective part in affecting people and policymakers. It is discriminating to see how presentation to media impacts tobacco utilization. The tobacco control group needs to investigate approaches to utilize the media successfully to enhance general wellbeing.

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Tobacco and the Media: A Multilevel Perspective This monograph looks at the motion of coordinated tobacco-related media intercessions. These include: Mass media promoting Marketing correspondence Consumer showcasing Stakeholder advertising

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Tobacco and the Media: A Multilevel Perspective

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Tobacco and the Media: A Multilevel Perspective Mass media publicizing incorporates TV, film, bulletins, radio, and press presentation. Cigarette publicizing and advancement in the United States totaled more than $13.5 billion in 2005 (in 2006 dollars).

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Tobacco and the Media: A Multilevel Perspective Marketing interchanges include: Sponsorship Brand promoting Brand extending Packaging Point-of-offer advancements Product situation Internet use Loyalty plans Free specimens

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Tobacco and the Media: A Multilevel Perspective Consumer showcasing incorporates: Pricing Distribution Packaging Product outline

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Tobacco and the Media: A Multilevel Perspective Stakeholder advertising includes picture and relationship building exercises: Scientific workshops Health notices Media preparing Corporate social obligation Youth anticipation

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Studying the Media and Tobacco Assessing causality in most sociology exploration is a noteworthy test. The pervasiveness and unpredictability of mass correspondences expand the test. The constraints of examination plans add to this test, particularly with mass correspondences.

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Studying the Media and Tobacco This monograph depends on the totality of proof from various studies utilizing a mixture of exploration outlines and techniques. The confirmation depends on: Consistency Strength of affiliations Theoretical credibility

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Monograph Organization Comprehensive examination of broad communications including Review of diverse sorts of media, Strategies to impact substance of media, and Effects of media correspondences on tobacco start and utilization.

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Major Conclusions

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Conclusion 1 Media correspondences assume a key part in molding tobacco-related information, sentiments, states of mind, and practices among people and inside of groups. Media correspondences on tobacco incorporate brand-particular publicizing and advancement, news scope, delineations of tobacco utilization and tobacco items in diversion media, advertising, corporate sponsorship, corporate promoting, political publicizing for ticket activities and referenda, and media battles for tobacco control.

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Conclusion 2 Cigarettes are a standout amongst the most vigorously promoted items in the United States. Somewhere around 1940 and 2005, U.S. cigarette makers spent about $250â billion (in 2006 dollars) on cigarette publicizing and advancement. In 2005, the industry burned through $13.5â billion (in 2006 dollars) on cigarette publicizing and advancement ($37â million every day all things considered). Right now, the greater part of the cigarette industry’s showcasing spending plan is designated to special exercises, particularly for value rebates. Value rebates represented 75% of aggregate promoting consumptions in 2005 ($10.1â billion in 2006 dollars). Under 1% of cigarette showcasing consumptions is presently utilized for promoting as a part of customary print media.

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Newspapers Magazines Outdoor Transit Price rebates Promotional stipends Retail Wholesale Free examining Specialty-thing dissemination Branded Nonbranded Sponsorships Public amusement Adult just General gathering of people Direct Mail Endorsements and testimonials Coupons Retail esteem special Bonus cigarettes Noncigarette reward Company Web website Internet—other Telephone Types of Tobacco Advertising and Promotion (Federal Trade Commission)

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Cigarette Advertising and Promotional Expenditures, United States, 1975–2005

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Conclusion 3 Tobacco publicizing has been ruled by three topics: giving fulfillment (taste, freshness, mellowness, and so on.), mollifying nerves about the threats of smoking, and making relationship in the middle of smoking and alluring results (autonomy, social achievement, sexual fascination, slenderness, and so on.). Focusing on different populace groups—including men, ladies, youth and youthful grown-ups, particular racial and ethnic populaces, religious gatherings, the common laborers, and gay and lesbian populations—has been deliberately vital to the tobacco business.

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Joseph F. Cullman III, administrator & CEO, Philip Morris; and director, official board of trustees, Tobacco Institute (Congressional affirmation, 1969) “[After cigarette publicizing is no more permitted in the telecast media] It is the cigarette\'s expectation makers to keep on abstaining from promoting coordinated to youthful persons; … to abstain from publicizing which speaks to that cigarette smoking is key to social unmistakable quality, achievement, or sexual fascination; and to cease from delineating smokers occupied with games or different exercises obliging stamina or molding past those needed in ordinary recreation.”

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“Directed to youthful persons”

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“Directed to youthful persons” (proceeded with) Marlboro Man/Marlboro Image

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“Essential to social noticeable quality, achievement, or sexual attraction”

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“Engaged in games or different exercises obliging stamina or molding past those needed in typical recreation”

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Conclusion 4 The aggregate weight of evidence—from numerous sorts of studies, led by agents from diverse trains, and utilizing information from numerous countries—demonstrates a causal relationship between tobacco publicizing and advancement and expanded tobacco utilization.

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Types of Studies Used to Assess the Association Between Tobacco Marketing and Tobacco Use Cross-sectional —A review of a populace bunch, at a solitary point in time , that looks at the connections between measures of introduction to tobacco advertising and measures of tobacco-utilization states of mind and practices ( n = 52 studies; Table 7.3) Longitudinal —Surveys of a populace gathering, rehashed at distinctive focuses in time , that inspect these connections ( n = 16 studies; Table 7.4) Experimental (ra

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