Music of Japan.

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Europe and U.S. (Western traditional music; pop culture) ... Famous Music: Enka and Karaoke. Enka: early cutting edge tune classification, emerged in 1880s as ...
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Music of Japan

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Overview Region=East Asia Consists of 3,000 islands, capital=Tokyo Constitutional government with head administrator History follows back to 660 BC Emperor Akihito

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Cultural Influences China (arrangement of composing; music) India, Korea, China (religion: Buddhism) Europe and U.S. (Western established music; pop culture) During Meiji period (1868-1911, Western craftsmanship music joined into instructive framework)

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Japanese Isolationism Edo/Tokugawa period (1600-1867): time of amazing noninterference, lead to union of conventional expressions Japanese religions: Shinto (animist, was state religion until WWII) Zen Buddhism (Japanese type of Buddhism, underscoring contemplation to achieve condition of uplifted mindfulness)

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Zen Art Forms

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Japanese Ethos Complex straightforwardness Emphasis on procedure Silence is pretty much as critical as sound Arts essential device for otherworldly advancement

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Hogaku (Japanese Traditional Music) PITCH AND SCALES: Octave separated into 12 interims (NOT tempered) and not the same relying on instrument Pentatonic scales normal Scales=collection of interims around "atomic" tones found a fourth separated (accentuation on fourths)

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Use of assortment of timbres, including unpitched sounds Sparse surfaces Singing tonal quality=tense, restricted Emphasis on tune, not congruity Use of short themes Open-finished pieces Varied reiterations Timbre and Melody

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Use of adaptable or "beatless" cadence Percussion musicality might be not the same as song mood ("sliding entryway impact") Most basic structure: jo-ha-kyu (in view of beat changes) Jo = moderate presentation Ha=breaking separated (beat manufactures) Kyu=rushing, rhythm achieves crest, then eases back to end Rhythm and Form

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Concept of "Mama" "ma"=space/interim, however alludes to general planning of piece, and relationship amongst sounds and hush Esthetic criteria: a great execution has great "mama"

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Instruments Hichiriki Shakuhachi Koto Shamisen

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The Shakuhachi End-blown bamboo woodwind (4 openings in front, 1 in back) Wide scope of timbres from "immaculate" to wide Flourished amid Tokugawa period Associated with samurai/cleric class, utilized as "profound apparatus" Music has a tendency to be unmetered, phrases take after breaths

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"Tsuru no sugomori" (Cranes are Nesting) (extract) (CD 4/1)

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The Koto Zither with empty sound load up, 13 strings, and portable scaffolds. Initially utilized by tip top as "profound device", later played by low/shipper class Famous piece for koto: Rokudan ("Six Sections"). Each dan has 104 beats, rehashed with varieties.

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The Shamisen 3-string since quite a while ago necked lute, wooden body with skin back and confront. Incorporates "humming" string. Connected with emotional music, utilized as a part of bunraku , kabuki , and kouta. Connected with geishas performing in tea houses.

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Kouta and Iemoto Kouta =song class, reaction to ladies not being permitted to perform in kabuki. Iemoto =guild that aides and gatekeepers transmission of custom and maintains instructing and performing models. Numerous organizations, or schools, each with inflexible chain of command. New creation regularly debilitated or taboo.

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Kouta: "Hakusen no" ("White Fan")

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Bunraku (manikin theater) Patronized by artisan and trader classes (Tokugawa period) Requires two performers: vocalist/storyteller ( tayu ) and shamisen player (in past, served as students for a long time) Uses extensive, elaborate manikins, some requiring a few puppeteers Plots profoundly passionate, similar to today\'s cleanser musical dramas Requires exceptional preparing and train

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Popular Music: Enka and Karaoke Enka: early present day tune classification, emerged in 1880s as political melody of "Individuals\' Rights Movement", later (by 1918) subjects were frequently humorous or wistful. Style: striking Western impact consolidated with Japanese style qualities. Enka prominent for karaoke sessions.

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Karaoke (Ka-ra-gracious kay) "Unfilled symphony" Technology intended to backing and improve beginner voices. Used to fortify customary Japanese custom of gathering singing, considered basic for good gathering progression. Scoring in view of exactness of generation, additionally "individual expressiveness"

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