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Nanotechnology Ralph C. Merkle Xerox PARC

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See for a file of talks

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Sixth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology November 12-15 Santa Clara, CA

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Manufactured items are produced using iotas. The properties of those items rely on upon how those iotas are orchestrated.

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Coal Sand Dirt, water and air Diamonds Computer chips Grass It makes a difference how molecules are masterminded

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Today\'s assembling techniques move particles in awesome thundering factual crowds Casting Grinding Welding Sintering Lithography

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The standards of material science, to the extent I can see, don\'t talk against the likelihood of moving things iota by molecule. It is not an endeavor to damage any laws; it is something, on a fundamental level, that should be possible; however practically speaking, it has not been done in light of the fact that we are too enormous. Richard Feynman, 1959

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Most fascinating structures that are at any rate generous neighborhood minima on a potential vitality surface can presumably be made somehow. Richard Smalley Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1996

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Nanotechnology (a.k.a. sub-atomic assembling) Fabricate most structures that are indicated with sub-atomic detail and which are steady with physical law Get basically every particle in the ideal spot Inexpensive assembling costs (~10-50 pennies/kilogram)

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Terminological alert "nanotechnology" has turned out to be extremely prominent. It can be utilized unpredictably to allude to any exploration region where some measurement is not exactly a micron (1,000 nanometers) in size. Illustration: sub-micron lithography

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Possible game plans of iotas What we can make today (not to scale) .

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The objective of atomic nanotechnology: a solid chomp. .

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Molecular Manufacturing We don\'t have atomic assembling today. We should grow on a very basic level new capacities. . What we can make today (not to scale)

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"... the trailblazer has for adversaries every one of the individuals who have done well under the old conditions, and tepid guards in the individuals who may do well under the new. This coolness emerges ... from the doubt of men, who don\'t promptly put stock in new things until they have had a long ordeal of them." from The Prince , by Niccolo Machiavelli

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We\'ll begin a noteworthy undertaking to create nanotechnology when we reply "yes" to three inquiries: Is it attainable? Is it significant? Will we do things today to speed it\'s improvement?

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Products Core sub-atomic assembling capacities Products Today Products Overview of the improvement of sub-atomic nanotechnology Products

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Two more key thoughts Self replication (for ease) Programmable positional control (to make sub-atomic parts go where we need them to go)

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Von Neumann engineering for a self imitating framework Universal Computer Universal Constructor

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Drexler\'s design for a constructing agent Molecular PC Molecular constructor Positional gadget Tip science

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Illustration of a constructing agent

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Advanced Automation for Space Missions Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study The hypothetical idea of machine duplication is very much created. There are a few option procedures by which machine self-replication can be completed in a functional building setting.

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A C program that prints out a precise of itself main(){char q=34, n=10,*a="main() {char q=34,n=10,*a=%c%s%c; printf(a,q,a,q,n);}%c";printf(a,q,a,q,n);} For more data, see the Recursion Theorem:

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Complexity of self imitating frameworks (bits) C program 808 Von Neumann\'s general constructor 500,000 Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988) 500,000 Mycoplasma capricolum 1,600,000 E. Coli 9,278,442 Drexler\'s assembler 100,000,000 Human 6,400,000,000 NASA Lunar Manufacturing Facility over 100,000,000,000

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How modest? Potatoes, wood, wheat and other horticultural items are case of items made utilizing a self recreating producing base. Expenses of around a dollar for every pound are normal. Atomic assembling will make any item for a dollar for each pound or less, autonomous of intricacy. (Plan costs, authorizing costs, and so on excluded)

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How solid? Precious stone has a quality to-weight proportion more than 50 times that of steel or aluminum combination Structural (burden bearing) mass can be decreased by about this element When joined with lessened cost, this will majorly affect aviation applications

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How long? The logically rectify answer is I don\'t know Trends in PC equipment propose right on time in the following century — maybe in the 2010 to 2020 time period obviously, to what extent it takes relies on upon what we do

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Developmental pathways Scanning test microscopy Self get together Hybrid methodologies

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Moving particles with a SPM (Gimzewski et al.)

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Self collected DNA octahedron (Seeman)

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DNA on a SPM tip (Lee et al.)

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Buckytubes (Tough, all around characterized)

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Bucky tube stuck to SPM tip (Dai et al.)

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Building the instruments to fabricate the apparatuses Direct make of a diamondoid constructing agent utilizing existing strategies seems troublesome (more grounded proclamations have been made). We ought to have the capacity to manufacture middle of the road frameworks ready to fabricate better frameworks ready to construct diamondoid constructing agents.

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Diamond Physical Properties Property Diamond\'s worth Comments Chemical reactivity Extremely low Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000 Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0 Tensile quality (pascals) 3.5 x 10 9 (natural) 10 11 (hypothetical) Compressive quality (pascals) 10 11 (natural) 5 x 10 11 (hypothetical) Band hole (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4 Resistivity (W-cm) 10 16 (characteristic) Density (gm/cm3) 3.51 Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10-6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10-6 Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8 Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05 Source: Crystallume

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A hydrocarbon bearing

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A planetary rigging

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A proposition for a sub-atomic positional gadget

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Molecular devices Today, we make things at the sub-atomic scale by blending together sub-atomic parts and shrewdly orchestrating things so they suddenly go some place valuable. Later on, we\'ll have sub-atomic "hands" that will give us a chance to put sub-atomic parts precisely where we need them, incomprehensibly expanding the scope of sub-atomic structures that we can construct.

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Synthesis of precious stone today: jewel CVD Carbon: methane (ethane, acetylene...) Hydrogen: H 2 Add vitality, delivering CH 3 , H, and so on. Development of a jewel film. The right magnetism, yet little control over the site of responses or precisely what is integrated.

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A hydrogen reflection apparatus

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Some other sub-atomic devices

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An engineered methodology for the combination of diamondoid structures Positional control (6 degrees of opportunity) Highly receptive mixes (radicals, carbenes, and so forth) Inert environment (vacuum, honorable gas) to kill side responses

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The effect of sub-atomic assembling relies on upon what\'s being fabricated Computers Space Exploration Medicine Military Energy, Transportation, and so on

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How capable? Later on we\'ll pack more registering force into a sugar solid shape than the aggregate of all the PC control that exists on the planet today We\'ll have the capacity to store more than 10 21 bits in the same volume Or more than a billion Pentiums working in parallel

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Space Launch vehicle basic mass will be diminished by around an element of 50 Cost for every pound for that basic mass will be under a dollar Which will decrease the expense to low earth circle by a variable of superior to anything 1,000

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It costs less to dispatch less Light weight PCs and sensors will lessen absolute payload mass for the same usefulness Recycling of waste will decrease payload mass, especially for long flights and lasting offices (space stations, provinces)

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Disease and sickness are brought about to a great extent by harm at the atomic and cell level Today\'s surgical devices are tremendous and loose in correlation

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In the future, we will have armadas of surgical instruments that are sub-atomic both in size and accuracy. We will likewise have PCs that are much littler than a solitary cell with which to direct these instruments.

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An insurgency in drug Today, loss of cell capacity results in cell crumbling: function must be saved With future cell repair frameworks, uninvolved structures can be repaired. Cell capacity can be reestablished given cell structure can be deduced: structure must be save

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