Natural Perils and Human Wellbeing.

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Natural Perils and Human Wellbeing Section 14 Center Contextual investigation: HIV/Helps (1) AIDS (Helps) Human immunodeficiency infection (HIV) Method of transmittance Exponential increment of contamination overall Center Contextual investigation: HIV/Helps (2) No antibody for HIV No cure for Helps
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Ecological Hazards and Human Health Chapter 14

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Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (1) Acquired invulnerable insufficiency disorder (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency infection (HIV) Mode of transmittance Exponential increment of disease around the world

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Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (2) No immunization for HIV No cure for AIDS

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Kaposi’s Sarcoma Fig. 14-1, p. 323

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Impact of AIDS on the Age Structure of Botswana, Africa Fig. 14-2, p. 323

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14-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face? Idea 14-1 People face wellbeing perils from organic, concoction, physical, and social components and from the decisions they make in their ways of life.

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Risk and Hazards Risk Probability Possibility Risk appraisal Risk administration

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Risk Assessment and Risk Management Fig. 14-3, p. 324

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Major Types of Hazards Biological Chemical Physical Cultural Lifestyle

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14-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face? Idea 14-2 as far as death rates, the most genuine irresistible infections are influenza, AIDS, looseness of the bowels, and jungle fever, with the vast majority of these passings happening in creating nations.

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Biological Hazards (1) Nontransmissible maladies Transmissible (irresistible) illness Pathogens Epidemic Pandemic

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Biological Hazards (2) Good news Bad news

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Pathways for Infectious Disease in Humans

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Pets Livestock Wild creatures Insects Food Water Air Fetus and infants Other people Humans Fig. 14-4, p. 326

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Pets Livestock Wild creatures Insects Food Water Air Fetus and infants Other people Humans Stepped Art Fig. 14-4, p. 326

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World’s Seven Deadliest Infectious Diseases

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Disease (sort of operators) Deaths every year Pneumonia and influenza (microscopic organisms and infections) 3.2 million HIV/AIDS (infection) 3.0 million Diarrheal ailments (microbes and infections) 2.1 million Malaria (protozoa) 2.0 million Tuberculosis (microorganisms) 1.6 million Hepatitis B (infection) 1 million Measles (infection) 800,000 Fig. 14-5, p. 326

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Science Focus: Growing Resistance to Antibiotics High bacterial conceptive rate Genetic resistance Global travel Use of pesticides Overuse of anti-infection agents

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Global Threats from Disease Tuberculosis Viral ailments Malaria

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Distribution of Malaria Fig. 14-6, p. 329

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The Life Cycle of Malaria

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Female mosquito nibbles tainted human, ingesting blood that contains Plasmodium gametocytes Merozoites enter circulatory system and form into gametocytes bringing on intestinal sickness and making contaminated individual another repository Plasmodium create in mosquito Sporozoites infiltrate liver and form into merozoites Female mosquito infuses Plasmodium sporozoites into human host. Fig. 14-7, p. 329

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Female mosquito chomps tainted human, ingesting blood that contains Plasmodium gametocytes Merozoites enter circulatory system and form into gametocytes creating intestinal sickness and making contaminated individual another store Plasmodium creates in mosquito Sporozoites infiltrate liver and form into merozoites Female mosquito infuses Plasmodium sporozoites into human host Stepped Art Fig. 14-7, p. 329

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Ecological Medicine Zoonotic illnesses Ecological (preservation) drug Human activities empower spread of ailment Clear-cutting and fracture Harvesting creatures Global exchange and travel Trade in wild species

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Science Focus: A Nightmare Flu Scenario Common influenza Potent mixed bags of influenza infection Spanish influenza of 1918 Future pandemics Animals as stores for influenza infection H5N1 avian influenza infection (fowl influenza)

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Preventing or Reducing the Incidence of Infectious Diseases Fig. 14-8, p. 331

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14-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face? Idea 14-3 There is developing worry about chemicals that can bring about malignancy and upset the human resistant, apprehensive, and endocrine frameworks.

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Chemical Hazards (1) Toxic chemicals Hazardous chemicals Mutagens Teratogens Carcinogens

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Chemical Hazards (2) Metastasis Immune framework Neurotoxins Hormonally dynamic operators (HAA) DDT, PCBs, atrazine, aluminum, mercury, bisphenol-A

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14-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards? Idea 14-4A Any manufactured or normal concoction can be unsafe if ingested in a sufficiently huge amount. Idea 14-4B Many wellbeing researchers call for much more noteworthy accentuation on contamination anticipation to lessen our introduction to conceivably unsafe chemicals.

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Determining Chemical Safety (1) Toxicology Toxicity Dose Relevance of hereditary cosmetics Multiple concoction affectability (MCS)

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Determining Chemical Safety (2) Water and fat solvent poisons Persistence Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Chemical connections

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Type and Severity of Health Damage Response – measurements subordinate Acute Chronic Mechanisms which lessen unsafe impacts Age-related impacts Effects of follow levels of poisonous chemicals

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Estimating Human Exposure to Chemicals and Their Effect

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Water contamination levels Air toxin levels Soil/dust levels Food pesticide levels Nutritional wellbeing Overall wellbeing Lifestyle Predicted level of toxicant in individuals Personal propensities Genetic inclination Metabolism Accumulation Excretion Lung, digestive tract, and skin ingestion rates Fig. 14-9, p. 335

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Potentially Harmful Chemicals Found in Homes

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Teddy bear Some soft toys made directs contain fire retardants and/or pesticides Shampoo Perfluorochemicals to include sparkle Clothing Can contain perfluorochemicals Baby container Can contain bisphenol-A Nail shine Perfluorochemicals and phthalates Mattress Flame retardants in stuffing Perfume Phthalates Hairspray Phthalates Carpet Padding and floor covering strands contain fire retardants, perfluorochemicals, and pesticides Food Some sustenance contains bisphenol-A TV Wiring and plastic packaging contain fire retardants Milk Fat contains dioxins and fire retardants Sofa Foam cushioning contains fire retardants and perfluorochemicals Frying dish Nonstick covering contains perfluorochemicals Fruit Imported organic product may contain pesticides banned in the U.S. Toys Vinyl toys contain phthalates Water jug Can contain bisphenol-A Tennis shoes Can contain phthalates Tile floor Nonstick covering contains perfluorochemicals, phthalates, and pesticides Computer Flame retardant coatings of plastic packaging and wiring Fig. 14-10, p. 336

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Protection against Harmful Chemicals Pollution insurance Precautionary guideline Persistent natural toxins (POPs) The filthy dozen Can we have a danger free society?

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14-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them? Idea 14-5 We can diminish the real dangers we confront by getting to be educated, considering dangers, and settling on watchful decisions.

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Evaluating Risks (1) Risk investigation (hazard appraisal) Comparative danger examination Risk administration Risk correspondence

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Evaluating Risks (2) Poverty – the most serious danger Risks from ways of life

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Number of Deaths Per Year in the World

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Cause of death Annual passings Poverty/hunger/sickness cycle 11 million (150) Tobacco 5.4 million (74) Pneumonia and influenza 3.2 million (44) Air contamination 3 million (41) HIV/AIDS 3 million (41) Malaria 2 million (27) Diarrhea 1.9 million (26) Tuberculosis 1.6 million (22) Automobile mischances 1.2 million (16) Work-related damage and infection 1.1 million (15) 1 million (14) Hepatitis B Measles 800,000 (11) Fig. 14-11, p. 338

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Comparison of Risks in the United States Fig. 14-12, p. 339

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Comparative Risk Analysis Fig. 14-13, p. 340

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Annual Deaths in the United States from Tobacco Use and Other Causes in 2004

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Cause of Death Deaths Tobacco utilize 442,000 101,500 (43,450 auto) Accidents Alcohol utilize 85,000 Infectious illnesses 75,000 (16,000 from AIDS) Pollutants/poisons 55,000 30,600 Suicides Homicides 20,622 17,000 Illegal medication use Fig. 14-14, p. 340

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Estimating Risks from Technologies System unwavering quality (%) = Technological dependability + Human unwavering quality Difficulties in assessing unwavering quality Perceived danger versus genuine danger

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Improving Risk Evaluation Carefully assess news reports Compare dangers Concentrate on most genuine dangers

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Animation: HIV Replication PLAY ANIMATION

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Animation: Life Cycle of Plasmodium PLAY ANIMATION

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Animation: Formation of Photochemical Smog PLAY ANIMATION

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Animation: Thermal Invasion and Smog PLAY ANIMATION

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Animation: Positron-Emission Tomography PLAY ANIMATION

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Video: To See Again PLAY VIDEO

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Video: New Nerves PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Fat Man Walking PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Second-Chance Heart PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Regenerative Human Organs PLAY VIDEO

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Video: The Problem with Pork PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Polio Scare PLAY VIDEO

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Video: AIDS Conference in Brazil PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Bird Flu PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Beach Pollution PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Food Allergy Increase PLAY VIDEO

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Video: World AIDS Day PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Clean Air Act PLAY VIDEO

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Video: MTBE Pollution PLAY VIDEO

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Video: U.S. Earth Summit PLAY VIDEO

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Video: Frogs Galore PLAY VIDEO

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