Noviembre, 2002 .

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Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deportes. FUNDABIT. Centros Bolivarianos de Informática y Telemática . Noviembre, 2002. La Informática Educativa en Venezuela. Fortalezas. Currículo Básico Nacional (1997).
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The study of disease transmission of Parkinson\'s Disease Kelly Sullivan, MSPH Associate of Research Parkinson\'s Disease and Movement Disorders Center Department of Neurology University of South Florida

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Importance of Epidemiology Health care and arranging Tool for examination of the reason for PD Defining ailment attributes, for example, commonness, rate, and mortality

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Origins of\'s Parkinson\'s sickness was first formally portrayed in "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy," distributed in 1817 by a London doctor named James Parkinson It has presumably existed for a huge number of years Symptoms and potential treatments specified in: Ayurveda, the arrangement of medication honed in India as ahead of schedule as 5000 BC First Chinese restorative content, Nei Jing, which seemed 2500 years prior

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Prevalence what number individuals have PD? Evaluated 1 million patients in US Second most normal age-related neurodegenerative issue Second in recurrence just to Alzheimer\'s malady far reaching gauges fluctuate 15/100,000 in China 657/100,000 in Argentina 100 - 250/100,000 in North America and Europe Prevalence is anticipated to triple throughout the following 50 years as normal period of populace increments.

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Incidence Quantifies the quantity of people who are recently determined to have PD in a given era Unaffected by components influencing sickness survival Accurate estimations of the rate of PD are moderately troublesome Clinical indications of PD might be gone before by a long inactive stage and have a moderate clinical movement

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Incidence Difficult to know what number of individuals are analyzed every year: Symptoms may create and advance gradually Diagnostic criteria may shift Patient populaces fluctuate as for specialist visits

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Incidence China: 1.5/100,000 Finland: 14.8/100,000 US: 20/100,000 Variations might be because of various demonstrative criteria and strategies for case ascertainment in studies Lifetime danger of PD: 1 in 40

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Age The frequency of PD increments with age Symptoms of Parkinson\'s infection may show up at any age The middle time of onset for idiopathic PD is 62.4 years Onset before age 30 is uncommon, however up to 10% of instances of idiopathic PD start by age 40

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Age Prevalence increments with age from age 50-90 Affects 0.3% of general US populace Affects 3% of those more established than 65 Aging alone does not bring about PD May expand vulnerability to different variables or permit them to be communicated

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Gender Slightly more regular in men than in ladies Estimated 12-15 men for each 10 ladies

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Ethnicity Present around the world, in all populaces No area observed to be free of PD More normal in white individuals in Europe and North America (100-350/100,000) Lower rates in China, Nigeria and Sardinia The turmoil happens in all races yet is fairly more pervasive among Caucasians

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Ethnicity Generally less basic among African-Americans and Asians one-fifth to one-tenth as predominant as in whites In Africa less basic among blacks than whites Door-to-entryway screening in Mississippi PD commonness was not altogether unique in whites and blacks in the wake of conforming for age contrasts (poor symptomatic criteria) Higher pervasiveness in whites with more grounded analytic criteria

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Ethnicity Two different reviews led PD occurrence in African-Americans and in Asian-Americans was like rates for European-Americans Door-to-entryway overview in Taiwan Prevalence of PD =119/100,000 Similar to that of a white populace and much higher than that of past investigations of Asian populaces

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Ethnicity Differences in discoveries Suggest ecological elements more imperative than racial elements Further reviews required Other elements? Contrasts in access to human services?

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Ethnicity The infection was once thought to influence basically whites, however late reviews have shown rise to predominance in African Americans and whites living in the same geographic range. Review epidemiologic reviews performed in different real urban communities have yielded conflicting data. Varieties in the pervasiveness of the sickness in individual racial gatherings in various geographic regions have recommended an expanded hazard connected with rustic living.

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Time Hard to assess Few reviews that track over drawn out stretch of time Studies may utilize diverse techniques or have distinctive analytic criteria Two reviews �  diverse conclusions Greater mindfulness - surely understood individuals have created PD

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Time Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota 1935-1988 Tracked number of individuals determined to have PD every year 1935-1944: 9.2/100,000 analyzed 1975-1984: 16.3/100,000 analyzed

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Time NIH investigation of overall PD inclines Statistically controlled for age contrasts Concluded that the commonness and frequency of PD seem to have stayed unaltered in the course of recent years

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Causes The reason for Parkinson\'s infection is obscure. Numerous specialists trust that few components consolidated are included: free radicals, quickened maturing, natural poisons, and hereditary inclination.

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What Causes Parkinson\'s? Why an individual builds up Parkinson\'s malady stays misty. The cause is presumably a blend of hereditary and natural components, and may shift from individual to individual. In spite of the fact that the reason for Parkinson\'s remaining parts obscure, researchers have distinguished components that add to Parkinson\'s in a few patients. Individuals over age 60 have a two-to-four percent danger of building up Parkinson\'s ailment, contrasted with the one-with two percent hazard in the overall public.

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Risk Factors and Protective Factors The single greatest hazard calculate for PD is propelling age Men have a somewhat lifted hazard contrasted with ladies Family history is likewise a vital hazard consider Individuals with an influenced first-degree relative are assessed to have an around multiplied hazard for creating PD This expansion can\'t be clarified by nearness of any of the known hereditary reasons for PD, which together record for just a little rate of familial cases

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Risk Factors and Protective Factors Caffeine utilization is connected with a diminished occurrence of PD Cigarette smoking has been connected with a decreased danger of PD It is not known whether smoking gives a veritable defensive impact, or whether people who are inclined to create PD for different reasons are additionally inclined to abstain from smoking Nonetheless, the antagonistic effect on general wellbeing from smoking is colossal, far in abundance of any slight lessening in hazard for PD Smoking can\'t be prescribed as a procedure for keeping away from PD

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Risk Factors Environment Environmental components may assume a part in PD Several individuals from a few families with broadly unique ages created PD inside a brief timeframe by far most of instances of PD are thought to be because of the potential collaborations of qualities and the earth

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Environmental Factors include: physical injury, presentation to chemicals and contaminations, and nourishment

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Rural Living A solid and steady finding is that the danger of PD is expanded by: provincial living introduction to well water agrarian work Suggests that pesticides or potentially herbicides may bring about or add to PD

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Environmental Toxins These conclusions are reinforced by a few distinguished poisons that initiate parkinsonism in creature models, and even in people MPTP - initially recognized as a contaminant in a clump of "street heroin" in Berkeley, California in the 1980s Addicts who infused it built up a clinical disorder practically indistinguishable to PD

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Environmental Toxins The ID of MPTP prompted to much profitable work on the phone pathogenesis of PD However, various toxicological reviews have exhibited that MPTP itself is to a great degree uncommon in the earth, and in this way is not a noteworthy benefactor to idiopathic PD It stays to be checked whether any single specialist will in the end be appeared to represent more than a little division of PD cases

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Genetics and Pathogenesis While the known qualities for PD are in charge of just a minority of cases, they have given remarkable understanding into the sub-atomic pathology of the malady

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Genetics Roughly one-fifth of Parkinson\'s sickness patients have no less than one relative with parkinsonian manifestations Suggests that a hereditary element might be included Several qualities that cause side effects in more youthful patients have been distinguished Most scientists accept, notwithstanding, that most cases are not brought about by hereditary variables alone

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Genetics Genetic research concentrates in the course of recent years have revealed an aggregate of 10 qualities connected with PD For most instances of PD, in any case, these qualities are not thought to assume a part Small as their part might be, qualities give a vital chance to us to study how the cerebrum functions

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Genetics Because most patients don\'t have an unmistakable history of either familial or natural hazard figures, the turmoil might be because of a mix of hereditary and ecological "influences" or "causes" In a little number of cases worldwide there is a solid legacy design A hereditary inclination for Parkinson\'s ailment is conceivable, with the onset of ailment and its progressive improvement dependant on a trigger, for example, injury, different ailment, or introduction to a natural poison

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Genetics In extensive epidemiological reviews, analysts have found that individuals with an influenced first-degree relative, for example, a parent or kin, have an a few overlap expanded danger of creating Parkinson\'s, when contrasted with the overall public by far most of Parkinson\'s cases are not specifically acquired, but rather specialists have found a few qualities that can bring about the infection in a little number of families

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