NTBs Under NAMA Transactions A South Asian Viewpoint.

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At the WTO General Council meeting in July 2004, Members emphasized the significance of NTBs to the NAMA arrangements in the Annex B The understanding peruses as takes after: ...
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NTBs Under NAMA Negotiations A South Asian Perspective By CUTS-CITEE Research Team Pranav Kumar Simi T B Chandan Mukherjee

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Presentation Coverage Theory Definition, Classification & Measurement Problems NTBs in Multilateral Trade Negotiations Tokyo, Uruguay and Doha Round Progress on NTBs Negotiations in Doha Round Approach, Notification by South Asian Countries India, Pakistan and Bangladesh Composition of Mfg. Trades from South Asia

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Definition of NTBs Baldwin (1970), Walter (1972), Mayer & Gevel (1973), and Deardorff & Stern (1997) have given their definitions to NTBs. UNCTAD, OECD, PECC too contributed in detailing of the term NTBs No lawful meaning of NTBs in WTO Agreements NTB are measures, other than levies, that are associated with state (authoritative) action and impact costs, amount, structure and/or bearing of universal streams of merchandise and administrations and also assets used to deliver these products and administrations.

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Non-tax Measures (NTMs) Vs. Non-tax Barriers (NTBs) For a few nations both NTB and NTMs are minor synonymous terms, for others these two are very distinctive. According to OECD, NTMs are characterized as strategy measures that have the impact of restricting exchange, with no inferred judgment on the authenticity. While, NTBs are characterized as instruments that are infringing upon WTO law. The raison d\'être for utilizing the expression "measure" rather than "boundary" is essentially because of the truth of few situations where strategies that fortify the volume of exchange as opposed to retard exchange, for example, trades endowments, can\'t be held as an obstruction. A boundary implies anticipation of something, now here it is the exchange.

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Classification of NTBs UNCTAD\'s Coding System of Trade Control Measures is the most extensive grouping framework At its most nitty gritty level, the arrangement recognized more than 100 distinct sorts of NTBs at its most point by point level however it doesn\'t fuse any measures connected to creation or to sends out. This arrangement contains six classifications/sections of NTBs, including value control measures, account measures, programmed authorizing, amount control measures, monopolistic measures and specialized measures. These sections on NTBs start from part 3 to section 8, while part 1 and 2 are on duty and Para-levy measures.

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Measurement of NTBs Frequency-sort measures QRs and comparative particular confinements Non-duty charges and related approaches Govt bolsters and other prohibitive practices Customs and regulatory methods Technical boundaries to exchange Price-correlation measures Quantity-sway measures

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NTBs in Multilateral Trade Negotiations In Tokyo Round, there was an exhaustive push to diminish exchange impediments originating from levies and NTMs New or strengthened assentions called "codes," were come to on the accompanying NTMs: sponsorships and countervailing obligations; government acquisition; specialized guidelines; import authorizing techniques; traditions valuation; and antidumping.

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NTBs Negotiations Under Uruguay Round WTO (URA) does not boycott the utilization of all NTMs In numerous courses URA on NTMs are an ext. of Tokyo Round Binding multilateral assentions marked on AD, endowments, SPS, TBT, shields, MFA and so on. The goal was to teach and permit just honest to goodness NTMs UR comes about see a lessening in the utilization of some vital NTMs – ERAs, QRs, send out sponsorships and so forth

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Doha Mandate on NTBs Seeks decrease or end of NTBs specifically on results of fare enthusiasm to creating nations Elaborated further in July Package and Hong Kong Declaration: Notification Identification Examination Categorisation To start arrangements

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Progress on NTBs Negotiations Tariff diminishment has been the primary purpose zone, exchange on NTBs has gotten less consideration At the WTO General Council meeting in July 2004, Members repeated the significance of NTBs to the NAMA transactions in the Annex B The understanding peruses as takes after: "We recognise that NTBs are an essential and similarly critical part of these transactions and educate members to heighten their work on NTBs. Specifically, we urge all members to make warnings on NTBs by 31 October 2004 and to continue with distinguishing proof, examination, order and at last transactions on NTBs. We observe that the modalities for tending to NTBs in these transactions could incorporate solicitation/offer, flat, or vertical methodologies; and ought to completely consider the rule of extraordinary and differential treatment for creating and minimum created nation participants." 32 WTO Members submitted warnings, 19 of which are creating nations. So far just three African nations (Egypt, Kenya, and Senegal), and one LDC (Bangladesh) have submitted notices. Tailing this, the WTO Secretariat gave aggregations of the proposition submitted with respect to NTBs. The aggregation, dated 29 October 2004, solidified 26 entries and refined three focal issues for talk: whether to address the expansive scope of NTMs recognized or whether to restrain the center; the proper WTO Committee or arranging bunch in which to address the NTBs; and the suitable modalities (as such, strategy) for arrangement of NTBs.

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Notifications from South Asia Till February 2006, nations like Japan, Korea, US, Argentina, Croatia, US, Cuba, Egypt, India, Mexico Singapore, Taiwan, Bulgaria, Norway, Venezuela, Hong Kong and some others have made notices to the WTO on NTBs. The notices are generally in the ranges/divisions like vehicles, chemicals, electrical, vitality, natural merchandise, fish and fish items, LAB nourishments, woodland items, LAB Generic, Health and wellbeing, REG Leather, Minerals, Petroleum, Pharmaceuticals, Phyto sterile and materials. The warnings are submitted to specialized Barriers to Trade (Agreement/Committee), NGMA, Sanitary and Phytosanitary (Agreement/Committee), Negotiating bunch on Rules and others. From South Asia – India, Bangladesh and Pak have informed

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Notification from India India has submitted notices on NTBs alongside different nations to the NGMA. India in its accommodation has expressed that prohibitive benchmarks , troublesome directions and methods in a few nations have been going about as boundaries that fundamentally influence sends out as likewise the ability to exchange. A few issues are included with the NTBs; a portion of the measures clubbed together influence singular committals, while some like those including costs put extra weight on fares.

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Notification from Bangladesh Regarding the stock of non-tax boundaries, the powers of Bangladesh accumulated data from Chambers, affiliations and individual exporters. The NTBs confronted by exporters are of various nature, and are arranged in the accompanying wide zones: (a) NTBs like SPS measures; (b) NTBs identified with TBT measures; (c) Quantitative limitations including boycott; (d) Labeling prerequisite; (e) Rules of Origin; (f) Visa necessity

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Notification from Pakistan Notifications set forward by Pakistan to the Negotiating bunch on business sector access for the NTBs confronted by its exporters incorporates: Due to the pre-shipment review required by specific nations for specific products, shipments get deferred and shippers abstain from sourcing from Pakistan. Non-straightforward system for enrollment of medications gives undue assurance to residential pharmaceutical firms in numerous nations and the outside pharmaceutical organizations and medication suppliers are denied market access. The enrollment methods as set around the Agreement on Trade-related licensed innovation rights should be made straightforward. Isolate accreditation; sustenance naming and bundling directions [description of nourishment fixings; sign of wholesome cases substantiated and specified], high rate of review and so forth raises the expense of fare and defers the shipment of transfers for the nations not having favored status through reciprocal MOU; The nourishment sanitation law prerequisites are likewise excessively stringent and need, making it impossible to be carried at standard with universally acknowledged benchmarks. This exchange prohibitive prerequisites should be dispensed with for items like Art silk fabrics and workmanship silk articles of clothing. The Azo Dyes confirmation test comes about vary from research center to lab and this prompts dissent of business sector access furthermore builds expenses to exporters.

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Categorizing NTBs In its arrangement of recommendations put together by Members on NTBs, the Secretariat recognized four classifications of NTBs – Category 1 are those that are secured by a current WTO Agreements and don\'t have a particular separate arranging command. Classification 2 are those that are secured by a particular WTO Agreement and are likewise subject of a particular separate arranging command. Class 3 are characterized as hindrances that are not particularly secured in a current WTO Agreement, but rather that are identified with parts of the Doha Work Program. NTBs in Category 4 are delegated hindrances that are not secured in a particular WTO Agreement, and are not the subject of a different arranging command.

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Categorizing NTBs Category 1: SPS, TBT, RoO, Import Licensing and so forth. Classification 2: Anti-dumping and Subsidies & Countervailing Measures (SCMs) Category 3: Trade Facilitation measures Category 4: Outside the current WTO understandings and Doha Agenda

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Composition of Mfg. Sends out from South Asia Bangladesh: RMG (Woven and Knitware), Jute items, Frozen sustenances and Leather & calfskin items India: textiles and RMG, diamonds and adornments, building merchandise, transport supplies, hardware, concoction items, cowhide items, handiworks and so on. Nepal: RMG, Woolen rugs, Pashmina items, Handicrafts, Silve

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