Antiquated and Egyptian Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris KempSlide 2
Topics Egyptian Civilization Egyptian Architectural Characteristics Mastabas Saqqara Pyramid at Medum Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Additional Giza Structures Characteristics Beni Hasan Mortuary Temples Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples New Kingdom Mortuary Temples Egyptian Civil ArchitectureSlide 3
Egyptian Civilization Egypt and Mesopotamia are the most punctual known recorded civic establishments Nile River was the main impetus for old Egypt Egyptians were fixated on existence in the wake of death and the dead These convictions greatly affected the way of life and its designSlide 4
Egyptian Civilization Ancient Egyptian Periods: Old Kingdom (c. 3200 – 2158 B.C.) Middle Kingdom (c. 2134 – 1786 B.C.) New Kingdom (c. 1570 – 1085 B.C.) Landscape Nile Valley bluffs gave a rich variety of building stone Varieties incorporate sandstone, rock, and alluvial dirt for blocksSlide 5
Egyptian Architectural Characteristics Egyptians normally imitated nature in their design In a verifiable sense, nature is a key component in engineering, regardless of the way of life Only as of late has this procedure been disregardedSlide 6
Old Kingdom Architecture: Mastabas First known Egyptian tombs Bench-molded masses transcending 30 ft. Made for the most part out of sun-heated mud block Featured slanting dividers and a level rooftop Burial load generally was encompassed by storage spaces Used to store products for the expired to take along their trip in existence in the wake of deathSlide 7
Old Kingdom Architecture: Mastabas Serdabs State chambers that highlighted a representation of the perished False entryways were incorporated to take into consideration the spirit of the perished to get away from the structure Mastabas served as a model for the later Egyptian pyramidsSlide 8
Old Kingdom Architecture: Mastabas http://www2.gp4success.org.uk/egypt/ARTICLES/mastabas.htmSlide 9
Old Kingdom Architecture: Mastabas http://www.petrie.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/3d/pictures/meydum5.jpgSlide 10
Old Kingdom Architecture: Saqqara Enormous funerary complex worked by the Great King Zoser in 2750 B.C. Key elements: Residence for the ruler in existence in the wake of death (tomb) Replica of the regal castle Stage for the order for the ceremonies of majestySlide 11
Old Kingdom Architecture: Saqqara Designed by Imhotep The initially recorded planner in history Would later be viewed as a divine being by the Egyptians First considered as a mastaba with gigantic stone pieces Unlike prior mastabas which utilized mud-blocksSlide 12
Old Kingdom Architecture: Saqqara The complex was more than once augmented after some time Layers were included an upward form These increases by Imhotep in the long run made the primary Egyptian pyramid Step pyramid Differs from the geometrically culminate pyramids (i.e. the Great Pyramids) Successive layers of littler structure included upwardsSlide 13
Old Kingdom Architecture: Saqqara Stands 204 ft. , present day Surrounded by a 33 ft. high divider Entrance Hall Columns are utilized to copy the packs of reeds found along the Nile Real reeds were ordinarily used to develop private structures amid this timeSlide 14
Old Kingdom Architecture: Saqqara Photo: SullivanSlide 15
Old Kingdom Architecture: Saqqara Photo: SullivanSlide 16
Old Kingdom Architecture: Pyramid at Medum Pyramid at Medum c. 2704 – 2656 B.C. Shows Egyptian endeavors at building a soaks, as opposed to ventured pyramid Geometrically idealize pyramid Requires no less than a 52° edge from the level Outer layers were deficiently bolstered Gave path to the gigantic weightSlide 17
Old Kingdom Architecture: Pyramid at Medum Photo: SullivanSlide 18
Old Kingdom Architecture: Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Pyramid at Giza The principal effective steep pyramid Created by the colossal pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) Also known as the Great Pyramid Originally 482 ft. high on an arrangement of 760 ft. Present day researchers stay baffled on its developmentSlide 19
Old Kingdom Architecture: Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Photo: SullivanSlide 20
Old Kingdom Architecture: Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Many researchers hypothesize its gigantic stone squares were quarried and transported by expansive sleds and freight ships Blocks were then lifted entrance ramps to be put at more elevated amounts Photo: SullivanSlide 21
Old Kingdom Architecture: Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Queen\'s Chamber The first internment place Located underground, underneath the Great Pyramid King\'s Chamber Replaced the first load Constructed inside the pyramid itself Considered one of the finest case of megalithic engineering in presenceSlide 22
Old Kingdom Architecture: Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Khufu\'s Pyramid at Giza Grand Gallery Grandiose section driving from the passage to the King\'s Chamber Originally planned to be utilized once, for the lord\'s entombmentSlide 23
Old Kingdom Architecture: Additional Giza Structures Chefren Followed the Great Pyramid in development c. 2530 B.C. Worked for the pharaoh Chefren Smaller than the Great Pyramid Photo: SullivanSlide 24
Old Kingdom Architecture: Additional Giza Structures Mycerinus Built after Chefren\'s Pyramid c. 2500 B.C. The remainder of the huge Egyptian steep pyramids Photo: SullivanSlide 25
Middle and New Kingdom: Characteristics Egyptian tombs come back to beneath the ground Many tombs start to show up in the precipices of the Nile Valley Builders choose to yield the monumentality of tombs for security from grave criminals Shaft tombs Long, underground hallways and loads emptied out of Nile Valley bluffs Little design noteworthinessSlide 26
Middle and New Kingdom: Beni Hasan Beni Hasan 125 miles upstream from Giza on the East bank of the Nile River Hollowed out of the Nile Valley bluffs Features: Colonnaded patio for open love Combined church and likeness loadSlide 27
Middle and New Kingdom: Beni Hasan Photo: SullivanSlide 28
Middle and New Kingdom: Mortuary Temples Mortuary Temples Followed the decrease of the pyramids and the camouflage of entombment loads Developed into Egypt\'s most critical momentous structure Funerary buildings set before the Old Kingdom pyramids are the absolute most striking morgue sanctuariesSlide 29
Middle and New Kingdom: Mortuary Temples Mortuary Temples Usually included three interconnected parts: A sanctuary close to the Nile where the lord\'s body was treated A funeral home sanctuary where customs were performed A long, limit highway between thick dividers interfacing the two sanctuariesSlide 30
Middle and New Kingdom: Mortuary Temples Temple Complex of Khafre One of the most amazing saved sanctuary complex\'s Photo: SullivanSlide 31
Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples The Sphinx Represented the god Re-Harakthe on gatekeeper over the ruler\'s tomb Contained an unpredictably built arrangement of insides Photo: SullivanSlide 32
Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples Mortuary Complex of Mentuhotep II Located at the base of the precipice at Dier el Bahari The primary stupendous structure against the Nile Valley bluffs in Egyptian engineering Huge complex built up somewhere in the range of 500 years after the decay of the pyramidsSlide 33
Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples Photo: SullivanSlide 34
Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Dedicated to the sun god Amon-Ra Located by the Mortuary Complex of Mentuhotep II Built approximately 500 years after the fact Considered "minimal Egyptian" of the Egyptian landmarks Closest Egyptians ever went to the engineering of Classical GreeceSlide 35
Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples Photo: SullivanSlide 36
Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples Thebes Originally inherent two areas on the East bank of the Nile River Known today as Karnak and Luxor Connected by awesome streets of SphinxesSlide 37
Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples Photo: SullivanSlide 38
Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples Thebes Temple of Khons Erected around 1100 B.C. Unique sanctuary that different structures would be designed according to in the development of Thebes Photo: SullivanSlide 39
Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples Thebes Temple of Amun Features two goliath pillars that were made for visual accent to the structure Obelisks tried Egyptian manufacturers to the full Great many-sided quality, detail, and sheer size Created from two monster stonesSlide 40
Middle and New Kingdom: Egyptian Civil Architecture Evidence demonstrates that life in Egypt was to some degree mainstream Evidence of nation houses and urban communities where exchange thrivedSlide 41
Middle and New Kingdom: Egyptian Civil Architecture Town of Tell el Amarna Early case of Egyptian urban arranging Lies amongst Luxor and Cairo Features: Large domains for the affluent Smaller houses for white collar class Shows indications of ghetto rangesSlide 42
Middle and New Kingdom: Egyptian Civil Architecture Photo: SullivanSlide 43
References Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western ArchitectureSlide 44
Ancient and Egyptian Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp
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