Old Roots of Taoism .


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Antiquated Bases of Taoism. Jeff Richey, Ph.D. REL 213 Taoism and Expressions of the human experience of China Berea School Fleeting 2004. Nature AND SOCIETY IN EARLY CHINA. Substantial populace Agrarian culture Climactic extremes (hot summers, solidifying winters, consistent surges)
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Antiquated Roots of Taoism Jeff Richey, Ph.D. REL 213 Taoism and the Arts of China Berea College Short Term 2004

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ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY IN EARLY CHINA Large populace Agricultural society Climactic extremes (hot summers, solidifying winters, standard surges) Relative seclusion (limited by Pacific, Himalayas, deserts)

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CULTURAL ORIENTATIONS Intense weight for social amicability Ideal solidarity of normal and social requests Confidence in human capacity to perceive and control condition Ethnocentrism and episodes of xenophobia

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EARLY CHINESE RELIGION "Prophet bones" utilized as a part of divination customs to speak with tribal spirits Shang-di 上帝 (" The Lord on High") = divine precursor of Shang 商 rulers (c. 1500-1050 BCE) later related to Tian 天 (" Heaven"), god of Zhou 周 rulers (c. 1050-256 BCE) Dao 道 (" Way" ) = regularizing grandiose example

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EARLY CHINESE COSMOLOGY Two theories: Agonistic relationship: people versus earth, Tian , other extrahuman strengths [Puett] Triangular relationship: people, earth, Tian share agreeable, correlative universe [Chang, Mote] In both, incredible accentuation on human organization in maintaining astronomical request

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THE CRISIS IN THE ZHOU ORDER (c. 771-221 BCE) After 770 BCE, Zhou lead was debilitated by remote attacks and inside divisions 771-481 BCE: Chunqiu 春秋 (" Spring and Autumn") time of shaky medieval coalition 403-221 BCE: Zhanguo 戰國 (" Warring States") time of steady respectful war among primitive rulers contending to force control and reestablish solidarity of Zhou domain The Baijia 百家 (" Hundred Teachings") emerge in light of social emergency and "free market" for political, philosophical, and custom mastery

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THE SCHOOL OF ZHUANGZI , c. 300s-100s BCE Zhuangzi = cloud mastermind from south China in charge of a few, however not all, of content that bears his name Zhuangzi = most unique and complex early Chinese content After 221 BCE, little enthusiasm for Zhuangzi until landing of Buddhism in China

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POSSIBLE SOURCES OF ZHUANGZI "Zhuangism" (1-7, 16-27): related with Zhuangzi himself, keen on study of logic, suddenness, inexpressible Dao "Primitivism" (8-10, 11): dismissal of society, grasp of "normal" qualities "Syncretists" (12-15, 33): join cosmological worries with self-development subjects "Yangism" (28-29, 31): related with nonconformist/pleasure seeker Yang Zhu 楊朱 ( c. 300s BCE) - cf. A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao (1989)

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ZHUANGIST THEMES Conscious learning = result of dualism (detachment of subject & question) Dao = strange, flippant, past standard way of thinking Unity with Dao = instinctive nature ( ziran 自然), opportunity, understanding Spiritual models = craftspersons, persisting regular items

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THE SCHOOL OF LAOZI , c. 300s-100s BCE Laozi = amazing, most likely non-chronicled figure credited with content; worshipped by 100s CE Text (c. 250 BCE) otherwise called Daodejing 道德經 (" Classic of Way and Power") rather than Zhuangzi , Laozi stays essential to Daoists past Warring States period

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POSSIBLE SOURCES OF LAOZI Diverse concerns recommend various layers of origin: Meditation strategies Military methodology Politics and rulership Social transformation Utopian idealism

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LAOIST THEMES Conscious information = result of decrease from time of sage-lord govern Dao = puzzling, irreverent, past tried and true way of thinking Unity with Dao = namelessness, opportunity, common social request Spiritual model = trademark wuwei 無爲(" actionless activity") of characteristic world

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THE HUANG-LAO SCHOOL, c. 100s BCE Huang-Lao = Huangdi 皇帝 (" Yellow Emperor" – legendary sage-lord of antiquated circumstances, related with recuperating expressions and rulership Laozi 老子 Popular at early Han 漢 court, c. 206-136 BCE Syncretism of prior ideas and concerns: Dao - based cosmology Techniques of rulership Interest in law ( fa 法)

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WHAT IS DAOJIA 道家 (" T AOISM")? The term Daojia ("School of Dao ") does not show up in Chinese writings until Han 漢 administration, c.100s BCE Han curators utilize Daojia to join four customs: Huang-di 黃帝 (" Yellow Emperor") medication Daoshu 道術 (" Dao - strategy") shamanism Zhuangzi 莊子 (" Master Zhuang") doubt Laozi 老子(" Old Master") magic/legislative issues

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MODERN SOLUTIONS "Philosophical" (pre-221 BCE ) versus "religious" (post-221 BCE) Taoisms [common division] "Thoughtful" (magical), "purposive" (political), and xian 仙 ( interminability chasing) Taoisms [Creel] Taoism = just post-221 BCE [Kleeman] "Laoist" (school of Laozi ) versus "Zhuangist" (school of Zhuangzi ) [Graham/LaFargue]

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DEFINING "TAOISM" Any meaning of "Taoism" must record for: Incredible differing qualities of things related with term Whether/why such things should be brought together under term

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