Overall Nanotechnology Advancement: A Similar Investigation of USPTO, EPO, and JPO Licenses.

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´╗┐Overall Nanotechnology Development: A Comparative Study of USPTO, EPO, and JPO Patents Xin Li Yiling Lin Hsinchun Chen Dec 2006

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Outline Introduction Background and Research Objectives Research Design Dataset Basic Bibliographic Analysis Content Map Analysis Citation Network Analysis Conclusions

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Introduction Nanotechnology A major innovation. Basic for a country\'s mechanical capability. Reforms an extensive variety of use spaces. Its R&D status draws to different groups\' advantage. Patent examination has been generally used to survey a field\'s innovative work status. (Huang et al., 2003a, Huang et al., 2004 ) concentrated on the longitudinal patent distributions of various nations, foundations, and innovation fields in the nanotechnology field. (Huang et al., 2005) considered the effect of National Science Foundation\'s financing on nanotechnology licenses.

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Introduction Our past exploration demonstrates that: The US is the principle giver to the nanotechnology field. Japan and some European nations, for example, Germany and the United Kingdom, assume a critical part in overall nanotechnology research. Numerous patent examination studies depend on the licenses recorded in the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database. Despite the fact that the USPTO covers a considerable lot of the licenses in the nanotechnology field, the European Patent Office (EPO) and Japan Patent Office (EPO) additionally archive a lot of nanotechnology licenses. Little research/data accessible about The nanotechnology research status reflected by the licenses in the EPO database and JPO database. Examinations of the qualities of the licenses documented in the three stores.

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Introduction Our Research Our exploration concentrates on the nanotechnology field and is a relative investigation of nanotechnology licenses recorded in USPTO, EPO, and JPO. The nanotechnology research in German, P. R. China, South Korea, and France are additionally extremely dynamic. Their patent workplaces archived numerous nanotechnology licenses (for the most part in their own dialect). In any case, in this examination we concentrate on the licenses archived in EPO and JPO, which have been deciphered into English. We utilize essential bibliographic examination, content guide investigation, and reference system investigation strategies.

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Background and Research Objectives Patent Analysis Patent distribution status has been utilized as a part of assessing innovation advancement (Karki, 1997; Oppenheim, 2000; Narin, 1994) in various areas: Nanotechnology field (Huang et al., 2003a; Huang et al., 2004; Huang et al., 2005) Gastroenterology field (Lewison, 1998) Taiwan cutting edge organizations (Huang et al., 2003b)

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Background and Research Objectives Patent Offices in the World There are a few legislative (e.g., USPTO) or intergovernmental (e.g., EPO) patent workplaces which control the allowing of licenses on the planet. USPTO, EPO and JPO issue almost 90 percent of the world\'s licenses (Kowalski et al., 2003). In the nanotechnology field, the United States, the European gathering, and Japan rule the patent distribution in the USPTO documented licenses (Huang et al., 2003a). The designers may record their licenses in various patent workplaces.

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Background and Research Objectives Three Major Patent Offices USPTO Patents US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO): more than 6.5 million licenses with 3,500 to 4,000 recently conceded licenses every week. EPO Patents European Patent Office (EPO): more than 1.5 million licenses with more than 1,000 recently conceded licenses every week. European Patent Office gives an online patent inquiry framework, esp@cenet, which contains the organized patent data from EPO, JPO, USPTO, and other nations\' patent workplaces. JPO Patents Japan Patent Office (JPO): more than 1.7 million licenses with 2,000 to 3,000 recently conceded licenses every week.

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Background and Research Objectives Patent Offices\' Effect The patent workplaces have distinctive methods and strategies which influence the patent distribution process. USPTO licenses have more references per patent because of the distinctive tenets administering reference rehearses (Bacchiocchi et al., 2004). In the USA, the "obligation of authenticity" principle obliges candidates to unveil all the earlier related work of which they know. At the European Patent Office, there is no such run the show. Most EPO patent references were included by the inspectors. The USPTO has less thorough patent applications models than the EPO (Quillen et al., 2002). The USPTO has a fundamentally higher stipend rate than EPO and JPO.

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Background and Research Objectives Patent Offices\' Effect (cont.) The "home preferred standpoint" impact can be another element that influences the sythesis of the licenses in one archive. Local candidates, proportionate to their imaginative exercises, tend to document more licenses with their nation of origin patent office than remote candidates do (European Commission, 1997). Both EPO and USPTO licenses have the home favorable position impact (Criscuolo P, 2005). The licenses in USPTO, EPO, and JPO databases have the home preferred standpoint impact both in the entire dataset and in "cutting edge" regions (Ganguli, 1998).

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Background and Research Objectives Utilizing Different Patent Offices\' Repositories To acquire a far reaching comprehension of an innovation region\'s advancement, it is important to concentrate on the licenses documented in various patent workplaces\' archives.

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Background and Research Objectives Utilizing Different Patent Offices\' Repositories In some different areas, a couple of past studies consolidate distinctive patent workplaces\' information for their exploration: Balconi et al. (2004a; 2004b) considered Italian educators\' commitment in the organizations in science-based mechanical classes utilizing the licenses documented as a part of USPTO and EPO. Lukach et al. (2001) contemplated between firm and intra-firm information dissemination designs utilizing licenses distributed as a part of EPO and USPTO by Belgian Companies. In the nanotechnology field, numerous past studies utilize a solitary patent archive. Huang et al. (2003a, 2004) surveyed nanotechnology research status from 1976 to 2003 utilizing USPTO licenses. Meyer (2001) surveyed the interrelationships amongst science and innovation in the nanotechnology field utilizing USPTO licenses.

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Background and Research Objectives Research Gap Few studies utilize various vaults to uncover the nanotechnology field\'s R&D status. Aftereffects of past patent investigation studies might be one-sided by the attributes of various databases.

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Background and Research Objectives Research Objectives Assess the nanotechnology improvement status spoke to by USPTO, EPO, and JPO licenses. Thoroughly analyze the distinctions in the nanotechnology licenses in the three storehouses.

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Research Design Research Design We develope a structure to evaluate the R&D status of an a science and building area taking into account the licenses in the three storehouses: USPTO, EPO, and JPO. USPTO dataset Data procurement Patent parsing Research status examination USPTO database Number of licenses Patent distribution Collected by watchwords EPO dataset Average number of refers to Patent significance/quality of a vault EPO database EPO+JPO patent Collected by catchphrases Topic scope Content guide JPO patent JPO dataset Knowledge dissemination Citation Network Patent status JPO database Patent status checking

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Research Design Research Design The system contains three stages: Data obtaining Retrieve licenses from the three stores. Patent parsing Parse the free-message information to organized information. Research status examination Analyze the licenses at various expository unit levels, i.e., (nation bunch), chosen one establishment, and innovation field (spoke to by third level IPC classes) .

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Research Design Data Acquisition Retrieve the licenses from the three stores A rundown of catchphrases can be utilized to scan for licenses identified with an area from the three vaults. USPTO gives online full-message access to licenses issued since 1976. The licenses can be looked utilizing every one of the information fields of a patent. EPO esp@cenet gives online full-message access to EPO licenses issued since 1978. The licenses can be looked in view of title, dynamic, and a portion of the bibliographic information. JPO Patent Abstracts of Japan (PAJ) is the official patent database of JPO, which contains the licenses issued since 1976. The PAJ database is hard to bug. Be that as it may, its licenses and patent applications can be sought from esp@cenet. Need to utilize the PAJ database to separate allowed licenses from patent applications.

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Research Design Research Status Analysis We evaluate a field\'s exploration status utilizing the accompanying pointers. Patent production pattern Number of licenses by nation in every year Number of licenses by nation bunch in every year Number of licenses by appointee establishment in every year Number of licenses by innovation field in every year Patent effect Average number of refers to by nation Average number of refers to by trustee foundation Average number of refers to by innovation field Topic scope Content guide investigation Knowledge dissemination Country reference system examination Institution reference system investigation Technology field system examination

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Research Design Data Limitations The three vaults have diverse information fields, which should be considered amid the investigation. There is no chosen one nation data in JPO licenses. We can\'t play out the "assignee nation analysis" and "country bunch analysis" on the JPO licenses. There is no reference data in JPO licenses. We can\'t play out the reference system investigation on the JPO licenses. In past studies we utilized US Patent Classifications to speak to innovation fields. Since USPTO, EPO, and JPO all have International Patent Classification (IPC), in this exploration we utilize

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