Parks and Nature Jelly.


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Parks and Nature Jelly. Layout. Parks and Nature Jam History Issues Size and Plan Wild Zones Untamed life Shelters Wetlands Values Decimation. PARKS AND NATURE Jelly. Starting points and History
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Parks and Nature Preserves Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Outline Parks and Nature Preserves History Problems Size and Design Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges Wetlands Values Destruction Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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PARKS AND NATURE PRESERVES Origins and History Sacred forests were put aside for religious purposes, and grounds saved for sovereignty. Regular finishing famous in England in 1700s; made fantasy of nature. Blue-bloods barred peasants’ collecting inside of chasing domains Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Central Park New York’s Central Park 1844 Provide restorative open space. Composed by Frederick Law Olmstead . father of scene building design. Got to be unique chief of Yosemite in California. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Yellowstone First US range put aside to ensure wild nature. Assigned the first National Park on the planet in1872. National Park Service established in 1916. Dispensed with proof of human utilization. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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U.S. National Parks US national park framework has developed to 376 parks, landmarks, notable destinations and diversion ranges. 300 million guests every year. State and nearby stops have 1/sixteenth the range of national parks, yet 2x guests. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Park Problems Islands of nature encompassed and debilitated by dangerous area uses and developing human populaces. Number of guests expanded by 1/third in past decade, park spending plans diminished by 25% Estimated $6-8 billion for late repairs and reclamation alone. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Park Problems Air Pollution Acid Rain Photochemical Smog Mining and Oil Interests Incompatible employments. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wildlife Historically, stops executed “bad” creatures (wolves) for “good” creatures (elk). Uneven biological systems, made bogus fantasy of nature. Today’s arrangement of “natural regulation.” Bison populaces Hunted off park property Brucellosis and household steers Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Buffalo executing at Yellowstone ` Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Buffalo slaughtering at Yellowstone Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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New Directions Several parks uprooted offices that contention with regular qualities. Recommendations to close various parks to sightseers to ensure environments. Airsheds, watersheds, and creature domains and movement courses regularly reach out a long ways past authority limits. Biogeographical region must be overseen as a unit. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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New Parks and Monuments Solution to make new stops. Great Staircase-Escalante Desert canyonlands in southern Utah. Sits on possibly trillions of dollars worth on regular assets. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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World Parks, Preserves and Refuges 4% of landmass North and Central America have the biggest part (10% of their territory region - 33% of aggregate secured region). Previous Soviet Union just has 3% of aggregate. Right now around 300 world biosphere holds in 75 nations. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Sustainable Human utilize and advantage Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Size and Design of Nature Preserves Ideally, a store ought to be sufficiently substantial To bolster practical populaces of jeopardized species, To keep biological communities in place To detach discriminating center ranges from outer strengths. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Size and Design of Nature Preserves For a few animal groups, a few little confined asylums can bolster feasible populaces. Be that as it may, can\'t bolster species obliging a lot of space. Passageways of common territory to permit development of species starting with one zone then onto the next can help keep up hereditary trade in divided territories. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Conservation and Economic Development Ecotourism can be more valuable to over the long haul than extractive commercial enterprises. Natural life viewing, outside entertainment can be wellspring of salary. Be that as it may, ecotourism can develop sways into new untouched regions. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Indigenous Communities and Reserves Areas decided for nature protection are frequently conventional grounds of indigenous individuals. Frequently hurt customary economies by limiting access or social practices. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Maasai herders and Tanzania national parks Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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WILDERNESS AREAS A confidence in wild is profoundly installed in our way of life. 1964 - Wilderness Act characterized wild: “An territory of undeveloped area influenced basically by the powers of nature, where man is a guest who does not remain…” Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wilderness Areas Most of territories meeting these benchmarks are in the Western US and Alaska. “Pure” understanding of region with no history of improvement, just 1/fourth of roadless zones qualify. Drawn out fight has been pursued over true wild ranges. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wilderness Areas Arguments for conservation: Refuge for imperiled untamed life. Isolation and primitive entertainment. Benchmark for natural exploration. Range left in common state. For some individuals in creating nations, the thought of unblemished wild is neither vital or fascinating. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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WILDLIFE REFUGES 51 national natural life shelters in US, 1901. Presently 511 asylums in each significant biome in NA. Asylum Management Originally expected to be havens in which natural life would be shielded from chasing or different unsettling influences. 1948 - Hunting permitted in asylums. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wildlife Refuges Over the years, various different uses have been permitted to work inside of natural life asylum limits. Oil and Gas Drilling Cattle Grazing Motor-sculling Refuges additionally confront dangers from outer sources - extending human populaces, water contamination Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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WETLANDS Wetland - Shallow water body or a region where the ground is wet sufficiently long to bolster plants particular to become under soaked soil conditions. Wetland Values Highly beneficial natural surroundings for untamed life. Possess 5% of US area, yet no less than 1/third of jeopardized species use wetlands. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wetland Values Storage of surge waters. Common water sanitization frameworks. Seaside Wetlands Used by about 66% of all marine fish and shellfish. Balance out shorelines and assist decrease with flooding harm. Recreational Opportunities. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wetland Destruction Throughout quite a bit of history, wetlands have been viewed as obnoxious and futile. 1850s to 1990s- - governments energized wetland seepage. 2/3rds of unique wetlands decimated. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wetlands Destruction Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wetland Destruction Clean Water Act (1972) secured wetlands by obliging release licenses. Ranch Bill (1985) blocked horticultural sponsorships to agriculturists who deplete or harm wetlands. These laws are not so much viably upheld. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Wetlands and Flood Control Floodplains - Low grounds along riverbanks, lakes, and coastlines subjected to occasional immersion. Important because of rich soil, level geology, advantageous water supply, access to sending, and recreational potential. Waterway control frameworks have secured groups, yet have a tendency to channelize streams, speeding stream of water and fueling flooding downstream. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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Summary Parks and Nature Preserves History Problems Size and Design Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges Wetlands Values Destruction Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Sc