Part 1 The Historical backdrop of Game Administration.

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Part 1 The Historical backdrop of Game Administration Presentation Foundations of Game Administration Structures Administration structures incorporate clubs, alliances, proficient competitions Essential topic of section: Development because of expansive social changes and/or to address particular issues Auxiliary subjects:
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Section 1 The History of Sport Management

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Introduction Roots of Sport Management Structures Management structures incorporate clubs, alliances, proficient competitions Primary topic of part: Evolution because of expansive social changes and/or to address particular issues Secondary subjects: Honest play and consideration

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The Club System England: Birthplace of current game & sport administration eighteenth century: Development of games clubs with restricted participation nineteenth century: Continued club advancement with institutionalizing of principles, settling debate, and sorting out calendars

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Thoroughbred Racing Races drew wide and different crowd no affirmation charged. Nearby club framework at first dashing existed for excitement just, not monetary profit 1830s: Rail framework permitted stallions to contend broadly Desire of proprietors to breed & prepare quick steeds, and the expanding many-sided quality of betting prompted more unpredictable club framework

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The Jockey Club Settled question, set up guidelines, decided qualification, assigned authorities, directed reproducing, & rebuffed deceitful members Organized, supported, and advanced neighborhood occasions Met requirement for an in number national overseeing body to set up principles, norms, and an instrument for determining debate Served as model for more extensive game administration rehearses in England

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The Modern Olympic Games International club occasion, with little likeness to old Olympic Games First Modern Olympics in 1896, however the restoration can be followed back to no less than 1850 with club-based Olympic celebrations in England Founder Pierre de Coubertin, enlivened by English recoveries & Victorian thoughts of character building and peace developments through game, presented idea of beginner Olympic Games at regular intervals

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Present-Day Club Structure Commitment to serve wide enrollment & overseeing world class sports venture Clubs compose youth groups & institutes, grown-up recreational associations, and get-togethers for individuals Large implicit participations & faithful fan bases Characterized by not-for-profit status and elite enrollment: Augusta and male-just participation Change from European club framework to U.S. class framework

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American Structures European club framework did not suit the U.S. Absence of blue-blooded convention & forbiddance against betting Evolution of outfit hustling Sport of the normal individual Better observer game Sprint versus four-mile race; stallions could contend every day, huge field of contenders Managed by track proprietors & race promoters: More ready to make observer enthusiasm for game Issues of race altering, administration lacking validity

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Leagues Baseball was first to receive alliance framework Cincinnati Red Stockings: First ace group Some groups in the class paid and some not—created debate 1871: Creation of National Assoc iation of Professional Baseball Players Importance of “breakeven” budgetary premiums of individual clubs © Jones and Bartlett Publishers

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William Hulbert Czar of baseball 1876 - Took over administration of National League of Professional Baseball Players Believed strength just accomplished if groups keep running like organizations Teams ought to go up against one another & not conspire Understood that without strict standards driving legitimate rivalry, plot would happen

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William Hulbert Also trusted: Owners must take some monetary danger: Abandoning seasons right on time to counteract misfortunes in fleeting dissolved long haul confidence of open Owners must field aggressive groups to be beneficial Integrity of baseball was suspect the length of the players’ genuineness was sketchy: Gambling precluded and ticket costs raised

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Success of League Excitement of flag race Favorable media consideration Appealed to fans’ devotion and pride in their urban areas Early type of income sharing Rules that disseminated ability

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Leagues Today Successful contemporary business games associations rely on upon merged alliance play with solid incorporated control and regulation Audience has changed: Public’s impression of locus of fair exertion dwells more with the players than with possession structure Single-element structures: MLS, MLL, AFL

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Professional Sports Tournaments Professional Golf Early golf experts were educators & caddies Professional associations neglected to catch open premium or pull in golf experts Attempt to create entryway incomes at competitions fizzled Stability of competitions accomplished when prize cash was set up by organizations & corporate patrons © LiquidLibrary

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Corcoran’s Tournaments Fred Corcoran = Architect of golf competition Golf competition was medium through which VIP, legislator, producer, philanthropy, town, or item picked up presentation Used competitors & golf competitions to offer publicizing space to people in general Bing Crosby & Bob Hope made philanthropy golf competitions in star am configuration for WWII gathering pledges

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Corcoran’s Tournaments Continue After War Ends Good business = charge conclusions Charities empower volunteers and great attention for competitions Golf hardware makers paid him to make golfer ass’n and mastermind competitions utilizing prize cash as player installments to lessen expense of contracting player agents 1950s press changes strategy and starts naming competition support not area = free exposure

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Tournaments Today Golf competitions have developed into corporate festival of itself and items PGA Tour saw as private gathering set tenets of qualification Associations not as selective as private clubs (Casey Martin) Trend moving far from not-for-profit private affiliations and toward showcasing offices and/or telecast media

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Importance of Women Heraea Games: The Sixteen Women Intercollegiate Sport: Christine Grant & Judy Sweet National Intramural Association (NIRSA): Anette Akins, Mary Daniels, Juliette Moore

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Importance of Women in Sport Management Sport Management Industry: Effa Manley of Newark Eagles (Negro League) Billie Jean King (WTT, WSF) Lesa France Kennedy (NASCAR) Stephanie Tolleson (IMG) Dawn Hudson (PepsiCo)

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Academic Field Continuing development of game industry and its significance to various backers and foundations made interest for the deliberate investigation of game administration rehearses 1957: Walter O’Malley 1966: James Mason; first Master’s program at Ohio 1971: University of Massachusetts

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Academic Field Current status Over 210 projects across the country North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Program assessment Globalization Sport Management Degree Programs all through Europe SM

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