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Chapter 1 What Is Science?.

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INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL SCIENCE Chapter 1 What Is Science? What is science? Quantitative description Objects and properties Quantifying properties Measurement systems Standard metric units Metric prefixes Understanding from measurement The nature of science The Scientific Method
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Prologue TO PHYSICAL SCIENCE Chapter 1 What Is Science?

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What is science?

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Quantitative portrayal Objects and properties Quantifying properties Measurement frameworks Standard metric units Metric prefixes Understanding from estimation The way of science The Scientific Method Explanations and examinations Hypothesis and Theories Laws and Principles Overview

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Objects and properties Objects - things that can be seen or touched Properties - qualities or traits normal for an item or idea Fundamental Properties: Example, length of an article Derived Properties: Example, speed: v = d/t Referents - similar properties utilizing other, more natural articles (Examples: “sky blue,” “lemon yellow”) Problem - dialect can be subjective, equivocal and at last round!

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Quantifying properties Measurement: utilizes quantitative referents - “units” Three stages: Comparing the referent unit to the property being portrayed Following a methodology determining how the examination is done Counting what number of standard units depict the property under thought Essential - a number and name for the referent unit

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Measuring a book with a clasp Procedure: Make mark at base of book Place adjusted clasp above imprint and make second check Continue to top Record number and units: “7 cut lengths”

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English framework Many units tons of the human body and different articles Different units are not methodicallly related Metric (SI) framework Established in 1791 7 base units: meter (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), ampere (A), kelvin (K), mole (mol) and candela (disc) All different units get from these Measurement frameworks (based upon institutionalized units)

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Standard metric units for the 4 major properties Length Distance light goes in 1/299,792,458s The SI unit for length is the meter . Mass Referenced to standard metal chamber The SI unit for mass is the kilogram . Time Referred to wavering of cesium particle The SI unit for time is the second . Charge (See power address) The SI unit for charge is the coulomb . Every single other propertie (e.g. volume) got from these. So different properties are alluded to as inferred properties.

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Metric prefixes Simplify the change procedure Help abstain from composing substantial or little numbers.

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Understanding from estimation Data Ratios and speculations The thickness proportion Symbols and comparisons Problem illuminating made simple

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Data Measurement data used to depict Objects Conditions Events Changes Example: Dimensions of a 3D square

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Ratios and speculations Ratio - examination however a remainder of 2 numbers Example: Area/volume of a solid shape Applications: squashed ice dissolves speedier; extensive potatoes are less demanding to peel

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The thickness proportion Ratio of mass and volume Intrinsic property (autonomous of amount) Characteristic of a given material “Weight density” = weight per unit volume

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Symbols and comparisons Symbols Represent amounts, measured properties Equations Mathematical connections between properties Describe properties ; characterize ideas ; indicate connections

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More math… Direct proportionality Inverse Proportionality constants Numerical constants

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The nature of science Beginnings of present day science ~300 years prior Associated with Galileo and Newton Ancient common scholars - “thinking only” Additional segment here - comprehension based upon test and normal observational confirmation – THE EMPRICAL METHOD .

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WHAT IS SCIENCE?  AND WHAT SCIENCE IS NOT! Lexicon meaning of science: 1. Learning. 2.â  Knowledge obtained by study. 3. Systematized learning of any one branch of the investigation of brain or matter, as, the exploration of material science. Clearly, not precisely how a researcher would characterize science.â  Science is truly significantly more than the definition above; science includes a sure state of mind about nature, science includes procedures or systems, and science results in products.â  David H. Ost and David George (1975) in an article "The conflicting Faces of Science" (in The Science Teacher, V. 42, No. 10, p. 14) gives the accompanying meaning of science: " is a human movement that has advanced as a scholarly instrument to encourage depicting and requesting the environment.â  Once one acknowledges the thought that science does not exist in whatever other domain but rather the brain, it stops to be a 'thing', an element with its own particular existence.â  Though exploratory truth or actuality is preferably objective, it is liable to human observation and logic..... As a strategy, science is moderately steady and all around connected, while as a collection of learning, it is continually changing."

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THE NATURE OF SCIENCE Attitudes of Science: Curious, objective, coherent, and balanced way to deal with the world's examination around us. Systems for Science: Sequential way to deal with the examination of normal phenomena.â  For instance, gathering information, assessing information, figuring speculations, testing theories by perception or experimentation, formulating suitable and controlled investigations, concocting unprejudiced and target measuring techniques, and so forth. Results of Science:   actualities, speculations, hypotheses, standards, and laws of nature.

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TERMS USED IN SCIENCE ( in light of definitions by the National Academy of Sciences) FACT: In science, a perception that has been over and over affirmed. LAW: An expressive speculation about how some part of the regular world carries on under expressed circumstances. Speculation: A testable articulation about the characteristic world that can be utilized to manufacture more unpredictable surmisings and clarifications. (NOT JUST AN EDUCATED GUESS!!! THE HYPOTHESIS HAS TO HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO BE FALSIFIED!!!) THEORY: In science, a very much substantiated (broadly tried and generally acknowledged by researchers) clarification of some part of the characteristic world that can fuse realities, laws, derivations, and tried speculations.

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WHAT IS NOT SCIENCE? All in all, what is not science?   Science depends on the target examination of information gathered from the regular world.â  As such, theory taking into account our own particular inclinations of how we see nature is not in the domain of science.â  Thus, enchantment, magic, witchcraft, crystal gazing, and other powerful cases are outside the limits exploratory investigation.â  Religious convictions additionally fall outside the limits of (science does not say that these convictions are false, or genuine, however just that these convictions can't be deductively researched). At the end of the day, we can't define speculations that are testable (can possibly be distorted) in respect to extraordinary convictions.

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The Scientific Method Observe some part of nature Propose a clarification for something watched Use the clarification to make expectations Test the forecasts with examinations or more perceptions Modify clarification as required Return to 3.

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THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. An issue or thought regarding nature taking into account perception. 2. Social event of extra introductory information (data) about the thought or issue. 3. Plan of a legitimate speculation (A substantial theory must be testable, as it were, it must be conceivable to demonstrate whether it is false or is reliable with watched truths). A theory is an extremely conditional clarification of some watched marvel of nature. 4. Testing of the theory by perception of nature or experimentation.â  In both cases, actualities (information) are assembled and dissected in respect to the hypothesis.â  The speculation is a prescient model.â  The information will let us know whether the prediction(s) we have made in respect to some normal marvels is (are) steady with the watched certainties OR NOT.

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THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY (cont.) 5. Detailing of a theory.â  If, after rehashed testing and wide acknowledgment by mainstream researchers, it is resolved that none of the information is conflicting with the expressed speculation; the speculation will be hoisted to the status of theory.â  A hypothesis is a broadly tried and generally acknowledged clarification for some normal wonder.   On the other hand, if any of the information is conflicting with the theory, then it will be changed or rejected. 6. Further testing of the theory.â  indeed, speculations are ceaselessly being tried as more logical information is gathered.â  Theories are likewise the generating ground for extra speculations .  Some theories that are extremely distinct of nature under specific arrangements of circumstances may in the end be hoisted to the status of standards or laws of nature , yet strictly when rehashed testing and we can't think about circumstances where the outcome would be diverse. An exploratory guideline is commonly more particular than a logical law, however the division is regularly arbitrary.â  Usually investigative laws are portrayals of characteristic marvels of a more broad nature and of more significance than a principle.â  Scientific laws and standards are spellbinding and let us know how nature acts (not how nature should act).

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THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY (cont.) Some speculations serve as expansive exploratory models of common procedures and include numerous gathered truths, and standards and laws.â  A decent sample is the Theory of Plate Tectonics , which clarifies inward developments inside of Earth and gives a clarification regarding why quakes and volcanoes (and other marvels) influence certain parts of Earth's surface.â  Another illustration is the present day Theory of Biologic Evolution , one of the most grounded and most certainty bolstered hypoth