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Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. Seton Hall University. Chapter 11. Eating Disorders. Changing attitudes. Eating Disorders. Although not historically true, current Western beauty standards equate thinness with health and beauty
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Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. Seton Hall University Chapter 11 Eating Disorders Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Changing dispositions Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Eating Disorders Although not verifiably genuine, flow Western magnificence measures liken slimness with wellbeing and excellence There has been an ascent in dietary problems in the previous three decades The center issue is a bleak dread of weight increase Two primary conclusions: Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa The principle manifestations of anorexia nervosa are: A refusal to keep up more than 85% of ordinary body weight Intense apprehensions of getting to be overweight A mutilated perspective of body weight and shape Amenorrhea Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa There are two fundamental subtypes: Restricting sort anorexia Lose weight by confining "awful" sustenances, inevitably confining almost all nourishment Show no changeability in eating regimen Binge-eating/cleansing sort anorexia Lose weight by spewing after suppers, mishandling intestinal medicines or diuretics, or participating in inordinate practice Like those with bulimia nervosa, individuals with this subtype may take part in eating gorges Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa About 90%–95% of cases happen in females The pinnacle time of onset is somewhere around 14 and 18 years Between 0.5% and 2% of females in Western nations build up the turmoil Many more show a few side effects Rates of anorexia nervosa are expanding in North America, Japan, and Europe Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa The "run of the mill" case: A typical to marginally overweight female has been on an eating routine Escalation to anorexia nervosa may take after an upsetting occasion Separation of guardians Move or life move Experience of individual disappointment Most patients recoup However, around 2% to 6% turn out to be truly sick and kick the bucket as a consequence of therapeutic confusions or suicide Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa: The Clinical Picture Despite their dietary confinements, individuals with anorexia are greatly distracted with sustenance This incorporates contemplating sustenance and making arrangements for dinners This relationship is not really causal It might be the aftereffect of sustenance hardship, as prove by the renowned 1940s "starvation ponder" with scrupulous objectors Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa: The Clinical Picture People with anorexia nervosa additionally think in bended ways: Often have a low assessment of their body shape Tend to overestimate their real extents Hold maladaptive states of mind and misperceptions "I should be impeccable inside and out" "I will be a superior individual in the event that I deny myself" "I can evade coerce by not eating" Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Anorexia Nervosa: The Clinical Picture People with anorexia may likewise show certain mental issues: Depression (normally mellow) Anxiety Low self-regard Insomnia or other rest aggravations Substance manhandle Obsessive-impulsive examples Perfectionism Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa, otherwise called "orgy cleanse disorder," is described by gorges Bouts of uncontrolled indulging amid a constrained timeframe Eats dispassionately more than the vast majority would/could eat in a comparative period Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa The confusion is likewise portrayed by compensatory practices: Purging-sort bulimia nervosa Vomiting Misusing purgatives, diuretics, or purifications Nonpurging-sort bulimia nervosa Fasting Exercising too much Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa Like anorexia nervosa, around 90% – 95% of bulimia nervosa cases happen in females The pinnacle time of onset is somewhere around 15 and 21 years Symptoms may keep going for quite a long while with intermittent respite Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa Patients are by and large of ordinary weight Often encounter weight vacillations Some may likewise meet all requirements for a determination of anorexia Binge-dietary issue: Symptoms incorporate an example of voraciously consuming food with NO compensatory practices, (for example, retching) This condition is not yet recorded in the DSM-IV-TR Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa: Binges For individuals with bulimia nervosa, the quantity of gorges every week can extend from 2 to 40 Average: 10 every week Binges are regularly completed in mystery Binges include eating huge measures of nourishment quickly with small biting Usually sweet sustenances with delicate surface Binge-eaters ordinarily expend more than 1000 calories (frequently more than 3000 calories) per fling scene Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa: Binges are generally gone before by sentiments of strain or potentially frailty Although the fling itself might be pleasurable, it is normally trailed by sentiments of extraordinary self-accuse, blame, discouragement, and fears of weight pick up and "disclosure" Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa The "commonplace" case: A typical to somewhat overweight female has been on an extreme eating routine Research recommends that even among ordinary subjects, gorging frequently happens after strict counting calories For instance, an investigation of pigging out conduct in a low-calorie health improvement plan found that 62% of patients reported pigging out scenes amid treatment Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa versus Anorexia Nervosa Similarities: Onset after a time of abstaining from food Fear of getting to be hefty Drive to wind up thin Preoccupation with sustenance, weight, appearance Elevated danger of self-damage or endeavors at suicide Feelings of nervousness, sadness, hairsplitting Substance manhandle Disturbed demeanors toward eating Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa versus Anorexia Nervosa Differences: People with bulimia are more stressed over satisfying others, being alluring to others, and having close connections People with bulimia have a tendency to be all the more sexually experienced People with bulimia show less of the fanatical qualities that drive confining sort anorexia People with bulimia will probably have histories of emotional episodes, low disappointment resistance, and poor adapting Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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Bulimia Nervosa versus Anorexia Nervosa Differences: People with bulimia have a tendency to be controlled by feeling – may change fellowships effortlessly People with bulimia will probably show qualities of an identity issue Different medicinal complexities: Only 50% of ladies with bulimia encounter amenorrhea versus all ladies with anorexia People with bulimia endure harm brought on by cleansing, particularly from spewing and intestinal medicines Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Most scholars subscribe to a multidimensional hazard point of view: Several key elements put people at hazard More variables = more serious hazard Leading elements: Sociocultural conditions (societal and family weights) Psychological issues (inner self, intellectual, and inclination unsettling influences) Biological components Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Societal Pressures Many scholars trust that present Western norms of female allure have added to the ascent of dietary problems Standards have changed all through history toward a more slender perfect Miss America contenders have declined in weight by 0.28 lbs/yr; victors have declined by 0.37 lbs/yr Playboy centerfolds have bring down normal weight, bust, and hip estimations than in the past Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Societal Pressures Certain gatherings are at more serious hazard from these weights: Models, on-screen characters, artists, and certain competitors Of school competitors studied, 9% met full criteria for a dietary problem while another half had side effects 20% of reviewed gymnasts met full criteria for a dietary issue Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Societal Pressures Societal demeanors may clarify monetary and racial contrasts found in commonness rates previously, Caucasian ladies of higher SES communicated more worry about slenderness and eating less These ladies had higher rates of dietary problems than African American ladies or Caucasian ladies of lower SES Recently, slimming down and distraction with nourishment, alongside rates of dietary issues, are expanding in all gatherings Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Family Environment As numerous as half of the groups of those with dietary problems have a long history of stressing slenderness, appearance, and eating less carbs Mothers of those with dietary issues will probably be health food nuts and perfectionistic themselves Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Family Environment Minuchin refers to "enmeshed family designs" as causal variables of dietary problems These examples incorporate overinvolvement in, and overconcern about, relative\'s lives Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Sense of self Deficiencies and Cognitive Disturbances Bruch contends that dietary issues are the consequence of bothered mother – kid communications which prompt to genuine inner self lacks in the tyke and to serious intellectual unsettling influences Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 3e

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What Causes Eating Disorders? Self image Deficiencies and Cognitive Disturbances Bruch contends that guardians may react to their kids either viably or ineffect

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