Part 14 IRAN Power Point Caroddo .


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Chapter 14. IRAN. Historical Turning Points. 559 BCE --- Empire of Cyrus the Great 332 BCE --- Conquest by Alexander the Great and the Greeks 250 BCE --- Parthian Dynasty 226 CE --- Sassanian Dynasty 638 --- Arab/Islamic Conquest 1219 --- Mongol Invasion
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Section 14 IRAN

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Historical Turning Points 559 BCE - Empire of Cyrus the Great 332 BCE - Conquest by Alexander the Great and the Greeks 250 BCE - Parthian Dynasty 226 CE - Sassanian Dynasty 638 - Arab/Islamic Conquest 1219 - Mongol Invasion 1501 - Safavid Dynasty builds up Shiism as state religion 1796 - Qajar Dynasty

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Political Turning Points I 1905 - Constitutional Revolution 1908 - Oil found 1925 - Reza Khan topples Qajar Dynasty 1941 - Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi gets to be shah 1950\'s - Mossadeq nationalizes oil industry; US upset reestablishes shah 1960s-70s – White Revolution/Khomeini in a state of banishment 1979 - Islamic Revolution

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Political Turning Points II 1980-1988 - War with Iraq 1989 - Khomeini passes on; Khamenei succeeds him as Supreme Leader after a power battle in the Assembly of Religious specialists 1997 - Reformist Khatami chose president 2000 - Reformist competitors win control of the Majlis 2004 - Conservatives recapture control of Majlis 2005 - Conservative Ahmadinejad chose president

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Achemenian Empire (Persia) Founded by Cyrus (6 th century BCE) Largest realm on the planet around then Survived for a long time Centralized military administration Major opponent was the Greeks Both Greeks & Persians at last vanquished by Alexander the Great Alexander left Persian political structure generally in place

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King Darius - Zoroastrianism Iranian sovereigns were inherited military pioneers Darius manufactured capital of Persepolis Built mind boggling arrangement of streets King\'s power upheld by solid military and also state-supported religion: Zoroastrianism did not get by as significant religion but rather kept on being drilled routinely until 7 th century CE.

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Shi\'ism Between 7 th & 16 th hundreds of years CE religion held Iran together Numerous attacks by Arabs acquainted Islam with the area Even when Iranian caliphate was vanquished by Mongols in 13 th century the Mongolians changed over to Islam Shi\'ism set up as state religion in 16 th century

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Shi\'ism II Shi\'ites – after Muhammad\'s demise they felt that initiative of the Muslims ought to be genetic and go to Muhammad\'s child in-law, Ali. Sunnis favored picking a caliph from the acknowledged Sunni administration When Ali was killed the Shi\'ite assessment turned into a minority one, yet they kept their different character True beneficiaries of Islam were the relatives of Ali The beneficiaries (Imams) proceeded until the 9 th century, when the 12 th relative vanished as an a youngster, to end up distinctly known as the " Hidden Imam"

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Twelver Shi\'ism "Shrouded Imams" 12 th Imam vanished as a kid in 874 CE, did not pass on in any case, will approach and show himself to set up simply manage toward the end of times, when bad form and debasement rule (Messiah-like figure) Ulema were eager to give the privilege to administer to the shahs the length of they led fairly By end of the 17 th century for a shah\'s run to be true blue he needed to have the ulema\'s underwriting Ulema eventually build up themselves as an organization autonomous of the state, tithes were regularly paid to the ulema specifically giving them both political and financial impact The focal point of Twelver Shi\'ism is the city of Najaf, in Iraq

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Safavid Empire (1501-1722) Established Shi\'ite character in Iran By mid-17 th century changed over 90% of populace to Shi\'ism Tolerated "Individuals of the Book" – monotheistic religions in view of blessed books like the Qur\'an Serious monetary issues do to separation of the Silk Road Had no cash for vast organization or standing armed force Relied on neighborhood rulers to keep up request and gather charges Claimed total influence yet did not have a focal state Monarchy got to be distinctly isolated from society and lost influence by 1722

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Qajars (1794-1925) Turkish individuals that reconquered Iran at end of 18 th century Moved money to Tehran Could not case to be descendents of Twelve Imams Shi\'ite administrative pioneers could assert more influence as translators of Islam, detachment amongst government and religion enlarged Suffered arrive misfortune to European realms of 19 th century, sold oil rights to British in the southwest Shah drove nation into genuine obligation Iranians irritated with shah\'s rich way of life search for change that would be started by investors and specialists

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Constitutional Revolution Constitution of 1906 Elections Separation of Powers Laws made by a chose lawmaking body Popular sway Bill of Rights ensuring resident equity, assurance of the blamed, and flexibility of expression Majlis & Guardian Council made Shi\'ism gets to be distinctly official state religion

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Pahlavis (1925-1979) By mid 1920\'s Iran in political and monetary confuse Majlis partitioned by quarreling groups Iran isolated into three sections after WWI with Russia and Great Britain each involving 33% of the nation Cossack Brigade of the Qajar\'s driven by Colonel Reza Khan completes rebellion in 1921 and cases himself shah-in-shah in 1925 setting up the Pahlavi line

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Pahlavi\'s proceeded with Authoritarian run restored in Iran Majlis loses its influence Reza Shah passes influence to his child, Muhammad Reza Shah in 1941 Democratic trial of 1906 constitution not overlooked, shah tested locally Tudeh Party (communists) National Front (patriots) Muhammad Mossadeq toppled by CIA in 1953, Shah reestablished

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Pahlavi - OIL & the Rent-looking for state Iran changed into lease looking for state under Pahlavi\'s a direct result of expanding wage from oil Rentier Economy : intensely upheld by state consumption, while the state gets "rents" from different nations Iran got expanding income from sending out oil and renting oil fields to remote nations Although shah advanced import substitution strategies by 1979 oil & related enterprises gave 97% of remote trade and lion\'s share of Iran\'s GNP Oil income turned out to be so extraordinary government did not need to depend on inward duties to create wage, paid costs from oil benefits The general population get to be distinctly superfluous to the administration in a rentier state

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Pahlavi Influence Centralized State banks National radio/TV systems National Iranian Oil Company (NOIC) Central Bureaucracy controlled nearby governments Majlis got to be "elastic stamp" lawmaking body Secularization in legal branch (European-style legal framework) "White Revolution" Armed powers 5 th biggest in world by 1979 Patronage – shah\'s help individual riches by seizing property and setting up duty excluded Pahlavi Foundation that controlled substantial organizations and sustained their riches Muhammad Reza Shah shaped Resurgence Party, guaranteed Iran was one-party state, named himself head

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Pahlavi – "White Revolution" "White" to counter impact of "red" communists Land change – government purchased arrive from extensive truant proprietors and sold it to ranchers at reasonable costs Encourage rural business enterprise with water system waterways, dams, & tractors Women\'s rights (secularization) Suffrage Restricting Polygamy Women permitted to work outside the home

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Islamic Revolution & the Republic (1979-exhibit) Dominant belief system of Iranian upset: Religion Leader a priest (Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini) Theocracy built up Fundamental Islam Causes Shah saw as being totalitarian Balance amongst common and religious state cracked Ties with US and the Western world

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Khomeini, Fundamentalism, & Revolution Islamic Fundamentalism Literal understanding of Islamic writings Social conservatism Political traditionalism Resentment towards elites, US, and the Western world US was the "Incomparable Satan" Velayat-e faqih (legal adviser\'s guardianship) Senior ministry given power over whole Shi\'ia people group

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Revolution Oil costs diminish around 10% in late 70s Consumer costs in Iran increment around 20% in the meantime "Transformation of Rising Expectations" – unrests happen when individuals are showing improvement over they once were and a set back happens US puts weight on pooped to extricate confinements on common society, specifically limitations on political resistance Once confinements were facilitated many gatherings join the revolt (understudies, educators, work bunches, oil laborers, vendors, and expert affiliations)

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Revolution II 1978 Unarmed demonstrators killed in focal square Tehran Oil laborers go on strike Anti-administration arouses pull in 2 million members Rallies composed and drove by pastors Shah escapes the nation in February 1979 Khomeini comes back to Iran from outcast in Paris

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Islamic Republic April 1979 submission held, Iranians authoritatively vote out the shah, Islamic Republic set up Assembly of Religious Experts – 73 pastors chose by the general population draft another constitution in 1979 US-Iranian prisoner emergency on-going amid vote to approve constitution 99% of electorate vote to embrace constitution albeit just 75% of qualified voters cast votes

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Khomeini & the Islamic Republic Clerics unite influence Popular support for administration high World oil costs rise once more, taking into account social projects, enhancements in solution & lodging Iraq attacks Iran, individuals rally around the administration Charisma of Khomeini enlivened confidence in the administration Khomeini kicks the bucket in 1989, constitution altered Ali Khamenei succeeds Khomeini, does not have an indistinguishable political moxy from the Ayatollah Iran/Iraq war closes in 1988, nation war-torn Oil costs drop in 1990\'s Population starts to question tyrant run of the priests

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Constitution of 1979 Document & 40 Amendments (Some additional in 1989) Mixture of religious government and majority rules system Preamble reflects significance of religion Velayat-e faqih (Jurist\'s monitor

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