Part 14 Single-Transistors Speakers.


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Jaeger/Blalock7/1/03. Microelectronic Circuit DesignMcGraw-Hill. Part Goals. Nitty gritty investigation of three expansive classes of amplifiersInverting intensifiers that give high voltage pick up a 1800 stage shift, basic emitter and basic source configurations,Followers-that give almost solidarity increase like operation amp voltage devotee, regular authority and basic channel configurations,Noninverting am
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Section 14 Single-Transistors Amplifiers Microelectronic Circuit Design Richard C. Jaeger Travis N. Blalock Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 1

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Chapter Goals Detailed investigation of three expansive classes of speakers Inverting enhancers that give high voltage pick up a 180 0 stage shift, basic emitter and regular source setups, Followers-that give about solidarity increase like operation amp voltage adherent, basic authority and basic channel arrangements, Noninverting intensifiers that give high voltage pick up no stage shift, basic base and normal entryway setups. Itemized configuration of voltage addition, input voltage range, current pick up, info and yield resistances, coupling and sidestep capacitor plan and lower cutoff recurrence for every sort of speaker. Comprehend contrasts between SPICE air conditioning (little flag), transient (huge flag) and exchange capacity investigation modes. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 2

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Signal Injection and Extraction: BJT In forward-dynamic locale, To bring about change in current, v BE = v B - v E must be changed. Base or emitter terminals are utilized to infuse signal in light of the fact that regardless of the fact that Early voltage is considered, authority voltage has insignificant impact on terminal streams. Generous changes in authority or emitter streams can make extensive voltage drops crosswise over gatherer and emitter resistors and authority or emitter can be utilized to concentrate yield. Since i B is a component of b F littler than i C or i E streams, base terminal is not used to concentrate yield. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 3

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Signal Injection and Extraction: FET In squeeze off area, To bring about change in current, v GS = v G - v S must be changed. Entryway or source terminals are utilized to infuse signal in light of the fact that even with channel-length regulation, channel voltage has unimportant impact on terminal streams. Significant changes in channel or source streams can make extensive voltage drops crosswise over channel and source resistors and deplete or source can be utilized to concentrate yield. Since i G is constantly zero, entryway terminal is not used to concentrate yield. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 4

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Amplifier Families Constraints for sign infusion and extraction yield three groups of intensifiers Common-Emitter (C-E)/Common-Source (C-S) Common-Base (C-B)/Common-Gate (C-G) Common-Collector (C-C)/Common-Drain (C-D) All circuit case here utilize the four-resistor inclination circuits to set up Q-purpose of the different enhancers Coupling and sidestep capacitors are utilized to change the air conditioner equal circuits. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 5

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Inverting Amplifiers: Common-Emitter and Common-Source Circuits AC proportionate for C-E Amplifier AC identical for C-S Amplifier Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 6

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Inverting Amplifiers: Terminal Voltage Gain For C-S Amplifier, take farthest point of voltage increase of C-E enhancer as and If R E and R S are set to zero, the voltage pick up has an upper bound of If R E and R S are substantial, the voltage pick up has a lower bound of Using test source v b to drive the base terminal of the transistor, disregarding r o , Assuming R is the unbypassed resistor in the emitter or source. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 7

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Inverting Amplifiers: Input Signal Range For little flag operation, size of v be created crosswise over r p in little flag model must be under 5 mV. In the event that , v b can be expanded past 5 mV limit. If there should arise an occurrence of FET, extent of v gs must be under 0.2( V GS - V TN ). Nearness of R S increments passable estimation of v g Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 8

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Inverting Amplifiers: Condition for g m R >>1 This condition disentangles the addition expression and is utilized to settle voltage pick up, accomplish high information and yield resistances and increment input signal reach. For BJT: For MOSFET: Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 9

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Inverting Amplifiers: Input Resistance and Overall Voltage Gain Overall voltage increase is For C-S Amplifier, Input resistance investigating the base terminal is given by For C-S Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 10

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Inverting Amplifiers: Voltage Gain Calculations (Example) Problem: Find general voltage pick up. Given information: Q-point values and values for R I , R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 7 ,for both BJT and FET and additionally values for R E and R S . Suspicions: Small-flag working conditions. Examination: For C-E Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 11

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Inverting Amplifiers: Voltage Gain Calculations (Example contd.) Analysis: For C-S Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 12

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Inverting Amplifiers: Output Resistance But R out = r o when R E = 0, not vast. Presently, we additionally incorporate r o in our investigation. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 13

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Inverting Amplifiers: Output Resistance (contd.) Assuming and , with … .for Finite current increase of BJT spots a furthest breaking point on size of yield resistance. r p shows up in parallel with R E if R th is dismissed. In the event that we let R E endless, greatest estimation of yield resistance is Output resistance of C-S enhancer is given by, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 14

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Inverting Amplifiers: Output Resistance (Example) Problem: Find yield resistance. Given information: Q-point values and values for R I , R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 7 ,for both BJT and FET and additionally values for R E and R S . Suppositions: Small-flag working conditions. Little - signal qualities are known. Examination: For C-E Amplifier, For C-S Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 15

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Inverting Amplifiers: Current Gain Terminal current increase is the proportion of the current conveyed to the heap resistor to the current being supplied to the base terminal. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 16

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Inverting Amplifiers: Summary C-E and C-S intensifiers have comparable voltage picks up. C-S enhancer gives to a great degree high information resistance yet that of C-E is additionally considerable because of the m f R E term. Yield resistance of C-E speaker is much higher than that of C-S enhancer as m f is much bigger for BJT than for FET. Input signal scope of C-E speaker is likewise higher than that of C-S intensifier. Current additions of both are indistinguishable to those of individual transistors. Taking after change is utilized to disentangle circuit investigation by engrossing R E (or R S ) into the transistor (For FET, current pick up and input resistance are boundless). Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 17

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Follower Circuits: Common-Collector and Common-Drain Amplifiers AC equal for C-C Amplifier AC comparable for C-D Amplifier Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 18

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Follower Circuits: Terminal Voltage Gain For C-S Amplifier, take point of confinement of voltage increase of C-E intensifier as and In most C-C and C-D speakers, Output voltage takes after information voltage, thus postulations circuits are called adherents. BJT addition is nearer to solidarity than FET. For the most part, r o can be disregarded as gain<< m f Neglecting r o , Assuming Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 19

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Follower Circuits: Input Signal Range For little flag operation, greatness of v be created crosswise over r p in little flag model must be under 5 mV. On the off chance that , v b can be expanded past 5 mV limit.Since just little parcel of info sign shows up crosswise over base-emitter or entryway source terminals, devotees can be utilized with moderately extensive information signals without abusing little flag limits. If there should arise an occurrence of FET, size of v gs must be under 0.2( V GS - V TN ). Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 20

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Follower Circuits: Input Resistance and Overall Voltage Gain Overall voltage increase is For C-S Amplifier, Input resistance investigating the base terminal is given by For C-S Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 21

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Follower Circuits: Voltage Gain Calculations (Example) Problem: Find general voltage pick up. Given information: Q-point values and values for R I , R 1 , R 2 , R 4 , R 7 ,for both BJT and FET. Presumptions: Small-flag working conditions. Examination: For C-C Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 22

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Follower Circuits: Voltage Gain Calculations (Example contd.) Analysis: For C-D Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 23

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Follower Circuits: Output Resistance Current is infused into emitter of BJT. Current an o i leaving authority must be upheld by v eb = an o i/g m , given by first term. i b =-i/b o +1creates voltage drop in R th given by second term if there should be an occurrence of FET, Thus equal resistance investigating emitter or wellspring of a transistor is roughly 1/g m . Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 24

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Follower Circuits: Output Resistance (Example) Problem: Find yield resistance. Given information: Q-point values and values for R I , R 1 , R 2 , R 4 , R 7 ,for both BJT and FET. Presumptions: Small-flag working conditions. Little - signal qualities are known. Examination: For C-C Amplifier, For C-D Amplifier, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 14 - 25

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Follower Circuits: Current Gain Terminal current increase is the proportion of the current conveyed to the heap resistor to the current being supplied from the Thevenin source. Microelectronic Cir

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