Part 14 THE WAR TO Spare THE UNION.


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THE WAR TO SAVE THE UNION. The American Nation: A History of the United States, thirteenth ... Democrats upheld war measures yet protested way Lincoln was taking up arms ...
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Part 14 THE WAR TO SAVE THE UNION The American Nation: A History of the United States, thirteenth release Carnes/Garraty Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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LINCOLN\'S CABINET Lincoln developed an "adjusted" bureau loaded with different sentiments William H. Seward, secretary of state, planned to pacify the South Salmon P. Pursue, secretary of the treasury, spoke to radicals Inaugural address mollifying yet firm Secession was illicit "I am hesitant to close. We are not foes, but rather companions. We should not be foes. Despite the fact that enthusiasm may have strained, it must not break, our obligations of warmth." Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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FORT SUMTER: The First Shot Southerners had seized most elected property in the Deep South and Lincoln had said would not endeavor to retake but rather intended to hold two residual fortifications in Union hands Fort Sumter, on an island in Charleston harbor Fort Pickens, in Pensacola, Florida When Lincoln sent a maritime undertaking to re-supply Sumter with sustenance, the South started shooting at the post on April 12, preceding the boats arrived Major Robert Anderson surrendered the stronghold 34 hours after the fact Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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FORT SUMTER: The First Shot Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee withdrew Riots broke out when first Union troops attempted to go through Baltimore in mid-April and just Union troop control of key focuses reestablished arrange Positions South said practicing right of self-assurance under a vote based system Lincoln said withdrawal was a dismissal of vote based system Slavery may have been the underlying driver of severance yet assurance to oppose originated from craving to protect Union Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY Northern focal points 20 million individuals (barring Kentucky and Missouri) however just 9 million in South (counting 3.5 million slaves) Manufacturing 9 times as much as South (counting 97 percent of country\'s guns) Far bigger and more proficient railroad framework North had control of naval force and vendor marine (taking into account barricade of South) Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY Southern perspectives Doubted Northern popular supposition would bolster Lincoln\'s utilization of compel Northern makers required southern markets and dealers relied on upon southern business Many Western agriculturists sent merchandise down Mississippi If North attempted to bar South, European forces, particularly Great Britain, would utilize constrain to open southern ports South gave about ¾ of world\'s cotton—faith in force of King Cotton Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY Southern military favorable circumstances Only needed to clutch what as of now had Could battle a guarded war Less exorbitant in men and material Of awesome significance in keeping up confidence and winning outside sensitivity Quickly discovered incredible administrator Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY Both sides Had enrolled men who battled for freedom, however they deciphered it in various ways Faced huge troubles in sorting out for war North After southern abandonments, standard Union armed force comprised of just 13,000 officers and enrolled men, excessively few, making it impossible to retain the 186,000 who had joined by end of year not to mention 450,000 who had volunteered by end of year Recruiting left to states and there was minimal focal association Units enlisted locally Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY ABRAHAM LINCOLN Boldly surpassed routine cutoff points of presidential power Expanded armed force without Congressional approval Suspended writ of habeas corpus Even liberated slaves when trusted it was military need Also demonstrated tolerance and profundity of character Gradually his stock rose Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY CONFEDERACY Had to make a whole organization under weight of war and impeded by states\' rights theory Constitution had no approval for laws intended to propel general welfare State governments more than once resisted focal government Continued to utilize points of reference and authoritative apparatus left over from United States Military By July 1861: 112,000 men were under arms Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE BLUE AND THE GRAY JEFFERSON DAVIS Courageous, innovative and insightful Too saved and obstinate to make either a decent legislator or a prominent pioneer Devoted a lot of time to subtle elements Failed to delegate power Unlike Lincoln, was eager with glib and dull-witted individuals Was just a direct military scholar Unlike Lincoln, squabbled habitually with subordinates, held hard feelings and permitted individual sentiments to misshape his judgment Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE TEST OF BATTLE: Bull Run July 21, Manassas Junction, Virginia, on a branch of the Potomac called Bull Run 30,000 Union fighters under General Irvin McDowell assaulted generally parallel number under General Pierre G.T. Beauregard Union triumph swung to vanquish with the landing of Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson and a Virginia detachment that stopped by rail from the Shenandoah Valley When Southerners counterattacked, Union men fled back to Washington, surrendering supplies and trampling tourists Southern troops neglected to catch up triumph Only genuine impact was on confidence Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE TEST OF BATTLE: Bull Run Lincoln conceived more extensive, more deliberate technique for winning war Navy would establish bar of southern ports Launch operations in West to control Mississippi New armed force would be gathered in DC to attack Virginia Congress approved enrollment of 500,000 three year volunteers Lincoln named General George B. McClellan Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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THE TEST OF BATTLE: Bull Run GEORGE B. McClellan had involvement in Mexican-American War and had invested year considering in Crimean War Had energy for sensational and capacity to motivate troops Was a capable chairman and coordinator Insisted on huge calculated support, intensive preparing for troops, press teach and careful staff work before making a move Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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PAYING FOR THE WAR By fall of 1861 a genuine armed force was coming to fruition along Potomac Northern shops and processing plants were delivering firearms, ammo, wagons, garbs, shoes, and innumerable different supplies Manufacturers progressively automated to manage loss of work To pay for war, Congress: Passed pay impose law in August 1861 (3 percent on livelihoods over $800) and evaluated coordinate duty on states Authorized credits of $140 million As war proceeded with, moved to extract assesses on practically everything 1863 upgraded keeping money framework Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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PAYING FOR THE WAR Federal government obtained $2.2 billion and gathered $667 million in duties (somewhat more than 20 percent of its aggregate consumptions) Printed $431 million in "greenbacks" which couldn\'t be recovered for coin Value wavered with tide of war By end of war typical cost for basic items in North had multiplied Reasonable not to depend too intensely on expenses in a predominantly agrarian nation where a great many people had moderately low money salaries Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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POLITICS AS USUAL Southern withdrawal left Republicans with expansive greater parts in both places of Congress Democrats bolstered war measures however questioned way Lincoln was taking up arms Adopted preservationist position on subjection and race relations Republicans isolated into Moderate and Radical wings As war advanced, Radical wing picked up in influence 1861 Charles Sumner was most noticeable radical Senator and Thaddeus Stevens was the rising influence in the House Insisted on annulment and full political and social liberties for blacks Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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POLITICS AS USUAL Moderate Republicans protested regarding blacks as equivalents and restricted making nullification a war point Peace Democrats ("Copperheads") contradicted all measures in support of the war and needed an arranged peace Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in basic ranges and connected military law openly 13,000 were captured, numerous unfairly Lincoln said protest was not to rebuff but rather to avert Free races proceeded all through the war Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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POLITICS AS USUAL Courts Ex parte Merryman (1861) held General George Cadwalader in hatred for neglecting to create a detainee for trial when requested to do as such Ex parte Milligan (1866) pronounced illicit the military trials of regular folks in zones where customary courts were working Clement L. Vallandigham was sent to jail by a military court, liberated and exiled to Confederacy by Lincoln, moved to Canada and unsuccessfully kept running for legislative head of Ohio Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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BEHIND CONFEDERATE LINES 1862: Confederate Congress passed an induction demonstration that allowed the employing of substitutes and exempted numerous classes of individuals Provision that exempted slave proprietor or administrator for each estate with 20 or more slaves prompted protesting around a "rich man\'s war and a poor man\'s battle" South had no gathering framework however a lot of political strife Pearson Education, Inc., distributed as Longman © 2008

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BEHIND CONFEDERATE LINES Finances Blockade extremely constrained duty cash Passed wage charge and various extract assesses yet just secured 2 percent of costs Tax in kind, adding up to 1/10 of every rancher\'s generation B

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