Part 5.

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How screens and feature cards identify with the framework, and how to investigate them ... Feature Card Manufacturers. Investigating Video Problems. Power light ...
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Section 5 Supporting I/O Devices

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You Will Learn… How to introduce fringe I/O gadgets How to utilize ports and extension openings for extra gadgets About consoles and how to investigate them About various sorts of directing gadgets How screens and video cards relate toward the framework, and how to investigate them

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Basic Principles of Peripheral Installations Peripheral is an equipment gadget controlled by programming; must introduce both equipment and programming Software may be of various sorts; you should introduce all levels More than one fringe gadget may endeavor to utilize same PC assets (IRQ, DMA channel, I/O addresses, or [for 16-bit drivers] upper memory addresses)

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A Review of System Resources An IRQ is a line on a transport that serves as an intrude on solicitation line and is appointed to a gadget Each gadget needs a gathering of I/O addresses the CPU will use to get the consideration of the gadget and speak with it Older gadget drivers and BIOS written in genuine mode require some upper memory addresses 640K-1024K Some gadgets require a DMA channel to accelerate information exchange over the transport proceeded…

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A Review of System Resources System assets are doled out at startup PnP gadgets don\'t ask for particular I/O addresses, DMA channels, or IRQs, however utilize those allocated by BIOS and OS Legacy gadgets are not PnP and require exceptional memory assets Sometimes a transport controller is doled out a solitary arrangement of assets for all gadgets utilizing the transport

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Installation Overview for an Add-on Device Install gadget (interior or outside) Install gadget driver Install application programming

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Internal Devices Drives (eg, hard, floppy, CD-ROM, DVD, Zip) Devices that are embedded in development spaces on the motherboard Advantages Less costly than outer gadgets Don\'t consume up work area room

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External Devices Use existing port (eg, serial, parallel, USB, IEEE 1394) Use port gave by interface card introduced in extension opening Advantage Can be moved effortlessly starting with one PC then onto the next

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Purchasing a Hardware Device Have essential learning of your framework CPU, framework transport, and nearby transport drive Memory Hard drive size OS and rendition Space accessible on hard drive For inside gadgets: what number of drives, sounds, or development openings are accessible

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Purchasing a Hardware Device Plug and Play? Offers highlights you need? Documentation simple to peruse and complete? Maker\'s Web webpage offer assistance and specialized backing? Guarantee? Perfect with current equipment and programming?

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Installing a Hardware Device Use antistatic arm jewelery and ground mat Unplug the PC and expel case spread Locate the opening and evacuate faceplate Insert development card in extension space Insert screw that associates card to case Replace case spread, power line, and peripherals Plug in the gadget Reboot the PC; introduce gadget drivers Test gadget

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The Case Cover

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Screws Connect Card to the Case

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Using Ports and Expansion Slots for Add-on Devices Serial ports Parallel ports USB ports IEEE 1394 ports Expansion spaces

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Serial, Parallel, and Game Ports

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Using Serial Ports Transmit information in single bits Almost constantly male Intended for info and yield gadgets Configurable for COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4 Port assignments are made in CMOS setup Conforms to standard interface called RS-232c Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communications Equipment (DCE) assignments

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Default Port Assignments

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CMOS Setup Screen

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Pins on a Serial Port Connection proceeded…

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Pins on a Serial Port Connection

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Null Modem Connection Special link (invalid modem link or modem eliminator) empowers information transmission between two DTE gadgets without the requirement for modems

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Pin Connections for a 25-Pin Null Modem Cable

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Infrared Transceivers Use assets of a serial port for correspondence Create a virtual infrared serial port and virtual infrared port for infrared gadgets Sometimes motherboard gives 5-pin association with its own exclusive IrDA-consistent infrared handset Industry is moving far from infrared and toward different remote advancements as a result of viewable pathway issue

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The Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART) Chip Controls every one of the nine pins of a serial port Establishes interchanges convention Converts parallel information bits originating from the framework transport into serial bits for transmission Converts approaching serial information bits it gets into parallel structure required by the framework transport UART 16550 driver is incorporated with all Windows working frameworks

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Using Parallel Ports Transmit information in parallel, eight bits at once Almost constantly female Originally expected for printers; now additionally utilized for data gadgets Cable ought to be no more than 10 feet to maintain a strategic distance from loss of trustworthiness of information Can be arranged as LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3 Port assignments are made in CMOS setup

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Uses of the Pin Connections for a 25-Pin Parallel Port proceeded…

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Uses of the Pin Connections for a 25-Pin Parallel Port

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Types of Parallel Ports Standard parallel port (SPP) Allows information to stream in one and only bearing Slowest of the three sorts Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) Bi-directional Extended Capabilities Port (ECP) Bi-directional

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A Standard Parallel Port

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Using USB Ports Designed to make establishment of moderate fringe gadgets as easy as could be expected under the circumstances Much speedier than general serial ports Use higher-quality cabling with four wires—two for force and two for correspondence Easier to oversee; dispose of need to physically resolve asset clashes proceeded…

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Using USB Ports Allow for hot-swapping and are hot-pluggable Most ebb and flow motherboards have one to four USB ports Managed by a USB host controller As numerous as 127 USB gadgets can be daisy changed together utilizing USB gadgets

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USB Ports

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USB Ports

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USB Ports

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Installing a USB Device Requirements Motherboard or development card that gives a USB port OS that backings USB gadget USB gadget driver Use Device Manager to confirm that USB host controller is introduced

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Using IEEE 1394 Ports Provides either a 4-pin or 6-pin connector Uses one and only arrangement of framework assets Uses isochronous information exchange Is hot-pluggable

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IEEE 1394 Ports

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IEEE 1394 Ports

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Using PCI Expansion Slots PCI transport keeps running in a state of harmony with CPU PCI controller oversees framework assets for all PCI cards Use Device Manager to figure out which IRQ has been doled out to a PCI gadget PCI transport IRQ guiding can take care of issue of not having enough IRQs to bolster all gadgets

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PCI Expansion Slots

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MCA and EISA Busses Microchannel Architecture (MCA) transport First 32-bit transport for PCs EISA (Extended ISA) transport Designed to contend with MCA transport

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Using ISA Expansion Slots Configuration is not computerized ISA transport does not oversee framework assets, as do USB and PCI transport aces ISA gadget must demand framework assets at startup

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Installing Legacy Hardware Solving issues with legacy equipment Solving issues with legacy drivers

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Keyboards Technologies in the way the keys reach Foil contact Metal contact

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Keyboard Connectors PS/2 connector DIN connector USB port Wireless association Requires a driver

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A Keyboard Adapter

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Pinouts for Keyboard Connectors

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Troubleshooting Keyboards A couple keys don\'t work Keyboard does not work at all Key keeps on rehashing subsequent to being discharged Keys deliver wrong characters Major spills on console

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Pointing Devices

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How a Wheel Mouse Works

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How a Mouse Connects to the Computer Serial port Dedicated round mouse port Mouse transport card USB port Y-association with the console Cordless innovation

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Other Pointing Devices Trackballs Touch cushions

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Troubleshooting a Mouse Check mouse port association Try new mouse Uninstall and reinstall mouse driver; reboot PC Reboot PC and select logged choice from startup menu to make Bootlog.exe record; proceed to boot and check log for blunders

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Computer Video Monitors Video cards

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Monitors Rated by screen size, determination, revive rate, and join includes Most meet measures for Super VGA Use CRT (cathode-beam tube) or LCD (fluid precious stone presentation) innovation Install double screens to build size of Windows desktop

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How a CRT Monitor Works

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Choosing the Right Monitor

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Flat Panel Monitors

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Kinds of LCD Panels Active-lattice Dual-filter latent network

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Video Cards Main components to search for: Bus it utilizes Amount of video RAM it has or can bolster Busses utilized by video cards: VESA transport PCI transport AGP transport

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How a Video Card Works

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Video Memory Requirements

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Video Memory Requirements

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Video Memory Requirements

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Types of Video Memory WRAM (window RAM) SGRAM (synchronous illustrations RAM) 3-D RAM

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Video Card Manufacturers

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Power light (LED) does not go on; no photo Power LED light is on; no photo on force up Power on, however screen shows wrong characters Monitor glimmers and/or has wavy lines No representation show or screen goes clear when stacking certain projects Troubleshooting Video Problems proceeded…

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Troubleshooting Video Problems Screen goes clear 30 seconds or one moment after console is left untouched Poor quality shading show Picture out of center or out of modification Crackling sound

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Troubleshooting Video Problems Confi

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