Part 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity .

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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity. Section 1: The Roman Republic. The Italian Peninsula Centrally located in the Mediterranean. Mountains and highlands comprised ¾ of the terrain with much of the remainder containing rich dark soil. Cut off from Europe by the Alps to the north.
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Part 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

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Section 1: The Roman Republic The Italian Peninsula Centrally situated in the Mediterranean. Mountains and good countries included ¾ of the territory with a significant part of the rest of rich dull soil. Cut off from Europe by the Alps toward the north. Gallia Cis-Alpina and Gallia Trans-Alpina. Early Peoples Probably occupied at an opportune time by Neolithic people groups who were semi-migrant. Indo-Europeans Multiple relocations of Indo-European people groups went into Italy. Umbrians-north Latins-focal fields called Latium Oscans-south The Etruscans Scholars are indeterminate of the roots of the Etruscans who did not talk an indo-European dialect. Obtained the Greek letters in order however to a great extent un-deciphered. Extremely expressive workmanship and model.

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Probably had a general public with well off overlords, privileged ministers, worker class, and a slave work drive. Created what might turn into the gladiatorial diversions. The Rise of Rome Ab Urbe Condita – "From the establishing of the city" Takes put around 753 B.C. Legend of Romulus and Remus Communities of the Seven Hills of Rome join to frame what turn into the city. Etruscan Rule After a time of run by Latin Kings, the Etruscans pick up control of the city. Amid the rule of the Tarquin Kings, the Latins figured out how to work with block and to utilize tile rooftops. The swampy marsh was depleted and city lanes were worked and in addition the inside known as the Forum. Monetary and political focal point of Rome. Under the govern of the Tarquin the Proud, the general population revolted and removed the Tarquins from the city. Legend of the Rape of Lucretia

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Fasces: image of power Social Groups Patricians – respectable class that customarily controlled the Senate. Plebeians – well off white collar class, shippers, ranchers, and specialists. All had the privilege to vote ( at various degrees) and needed to pay expenses and serve in the military. Plebeians couldn\'t hold open office like the Patricians. The Roman Republic The Patricians composed an authoritative and legal branch. The Executive Branch comprised of the Consulship. Two emissaries chose from the Senate, served for a one year term. Each had the ability to veto the other. In charge of supervising different authorities, for example, praetors and blue pencils. Despots: Temporarily chose amid times of emergency. Senate: 300 patricians chose forever. Get together of the Centuries: Elected from the ordinary class however less effective than the Senate.

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Plebeians against Patricians 494 B.C.- Plebeians prevail from the city keeping in mind the end goal to acquire political power. Tribunes:chosen delegates chose by the Assembly of the Tribes. Ensured by the law and could veto government choices. 451 B.C.: The Twelve Tables/composed laws situated in the Forum. By 287 B.C. plebeians could achieve high open office and make laws in the Assembly of the Tribes. Religion Fortune telling; prognostication, diviners Heavily impacted by the Greeks. Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Pluto, Saturn, Neptune… Ancestor love. Vesta: hearth Family Large more distant family. Pater Familias : leader of the family/total power. Ladies by and large had a bigger number of opportunities than Greek ladies. Strict teach of youngsters and relatives. Thrift, teach, altruism, dedication to family, respect, and obligation were conventional Roman qualities.

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Section 2 Expansion and Crisis Roman Legions Male natives who claimed arrive needed to serve in the military. The Romans adjusted the Greek phalanx arrangement. Armies: 6,000 men Smaller divisions of 60 – 120 officers. Strict teach. (Annihilate) Conquered people groups were dealt with well on the off chance that they collaborated. Offered different types of citizenship. Coloniae : lasting military settlements/provinces Roads worked to connection states/exchange courses. Roman against Carthage By 300 B.C. Carthage was the most effective Mediterranean city. Referred to the Romans as Punici . The First Punic War Carthage undermined to grab the Strait of Messina. Carthage had maritime prevalence driving the Romans over form their very own naval force. Catching snares to board the adversary ships. Romans win driving Carthage to pay an enormous reimbursement.

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The Second Punic War 221B.C. Hannibal turned into the Carthaginian General in Spain. Father-Hamilcar – Oath Captured a Roman unified city. Walked 40,000 fighters and 40 elephants crosswise over Gaul, over the Alps and into Italy. Lost portion of his powers and the majority of his elephants. Vanquished Roman armies every step of the way about obliterating the whole armed force at Cannae. Romans regrouped under Scipio. Scipio assaulted Carthage to secure Rome. Vanquished Hannibal at Zama in 202 B.C. Scipio Africanus – Forced yet another repayment and constrained Carthage to hand over the majority of their naval force. The Third Punic War Carthage recovered quality regardless of the repayment. Rome needed to dispose of Carthage unequivocally. Begun another war by persuading a partner to assault Carthage. 146 B.C.: Carthage was singed, populace sold into servitude, and fields sowed with salt. Rome now controlled the Western Mediterranean.

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The Republic in Crisis Expansion created issues in administering the areas. About the majority of the Mediterranean was under Roman lead or in well disposed union with Rome. Horse Nostrum – "Our Sea" Roman government intended to deal with a city-state, not a domain. Abusing the territories Provinces paid tribute to Rome. Proconsuls were named by the Senate to represent the territories. Frequently acknowledged rewards and stole from the treasuries. Assess gatherers likewise took cash from the areas. Territories regularly revolted constraining the Romans to place standing battalions and armies in the territory. Romans put down Jewish revolt and sacked Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Changing the Countryside Latifundia – ranches/slave work Produced grains at a less expensive cost. Constrained little ranchers of the homesteads and into the urban areas. Latifundia caught the market in grains, olives, grapes, and domesticated animals.

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Crowding in the Cities Landless ranchers enter the urban communities searching for employments that were at that point taken by slaves. Equites – "knights" well off dealers/not respectability. Reformers and Generals The Gracchi Tiberius Gracchus – grandson of Scipio – chose to the Tribunate in 133. B.C. Passed agrarian enactment to offer land to the poor notwithstanding restriction from the Senate. Killed alongside 300 supporters by irate Patricians. Gaius Gracchus – sibling – chose Tribune 10 yrs. later. Passed laws offering area to poor people and sorted out projects to offer grain at less expensive costs. Additionally killed in an uproar composed by his adversaries. Marius and Sulla Gaius Marius was chosen Consul in 107 B.C. Given employments in the armed force. Paid fighters and guaranteed them arrive on retirement. Officers owed loyalty to the General not the State. Lucius Cornelius Sulla – Arguing over control of the eastern armed forces, utilized his armed force to assault Rome and push Marius into outcast.

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The First Triumvirate Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus chose emissaries in 70 B.C. Picked up support of Julius Caesar in 60 B.C. shaping a Triumvirate. Caesar took control of the armies in Gaul and soon vanquished the Celts as he pushed promote north into Europe. Crassus executed in fight in 53 B.C. Pompey and the Senate review Caesar and constrain him to leave his armies north of the Rubicon stream. Caesar crosses the Rubicon with his officers and inside two months caught all of Italy and drove Pompey and his partners out lastly crushed him. Julius Caesar 45 B.C. – Caesar took the title of Dictator forever. Offered employments to the unemployed, open land to poor people, conceded citizenship to numerous individuals in the regions. Julian schedule. Regardless of extraordinary prominence among the general population, Senators drove by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius killed Caesar on his way to the Senate.

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End of the Republic Caesar\'s grandnephew Octavian joined with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus and framed a Second Triumvirate and vanquished the armed forces of Caesar\'s professional killers in 42 B.C.. Octavian took order of Italy, Antony managed in Greece, and Lepidus took control of North Africa. Octavian constrained Lepidus into retirement and persuaded the Romans that Antony needed to attack Italy with his and Cleopatra\'s armed force. Octavian soundly vanquished Marc Antony\'s naval force at the skirmish of Actium in Greece. After a year, Antony and Cleopatra both conferred suicide to maintain a strategic distance from catch. Octavian turned into the sole leader of Rome.

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