Part 6 Disposition Issue.

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More endless form of bipolar issue. Hyper and significant depressive scenes are less ... Fast cycling example For Bipolar I and II issue just ...
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Section 6 Mood Disorders

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An Overview of Mood Disorders Mood Disorders Gross deviations in disposition Major depressive scenes Manic and hypomanic scenes Types of DSM-IV-TR Depressive Disorders Major depressive issue Dysthymic issue Types of DSM-IV-TR Bipolar Disorders Bipolar I issue Bipolar II issue Cyclothymic issue

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Major Depression: An Overview Major Depressive Episode: Overview and Defining Features Extremely discouraged temperament – Lasting no less than 2 weeks Cognitive side effects (e.g., feeling useless or hesitant) Disturbed physical working Anhedonia – Loss of joy/enthusiasm for normal exercises Major Depressive Disorder Single scene – Highly surprising Recurrent scenes – More basic

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Dysthymia: An Overview and Defining Features Milder manifestations of gloom than real sorrow Persists for no less than 2 years Can hold on unaltered over long stretches – > 20 years Facts and Statistics Late onset – Typically in the mid 20s Early onset – Before age 21 Greater chronicity, poorer anticipation

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Bipolar I Disorder: An Overview and Defining Features Alternating full significant depressive and hyper scenes Facts and Statistics Average age on onset is 18 years Can start in youth Tends to be ceaseless Suicide is a typical result

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Bipolar II Disorder: An Overview and Defining Features Alternating real depressive and hypomanic scenes Facts and Statistics Average time of onset is 22 years Can start in adolescence 10 to 13% of cases advancement to full Bipolar I issue Tends to be constant

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Cyclothymic Disorder: An Overview and Defining Features More incessant rendition of bipolar issue Manic and real depressive scenes are less serious Manic or depressive inclination states persevere for long stretches Pattern should keep going for no less than 2 years for grown-ups Must last no less than 1 year for kids and young people Facts and Statistics Average time of onset is around 12 or 14 years Cyclothymia has a tendency to be perpetual and deep rooted Most are female High hazard for creating Bipolar I or II issue

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Additional Defining Criteria for Mood Disorders: Symptom Specifiers Symptom Specifiers Atypical – Oversleep, gorge, weight pick up, nervousness Melancholic – Severe depressive and substantial indications Chronic – Major despondency just, enduring 2 years Catatonic – Absence of development, intense Psychotic – Mood compatible pipedreams/fancies Mood incongruent components conceivable, yet uncommon Postpartum – Manic or depressive scenes after labor

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Additional Defining Criteria for Mood Disorders: Course Specifiers Course Specifiers Longitudinal course Past history of mind-set aggravation History of recuperation from misery and/or madness Rapid cycling design – For Bipolar I and II issue just Seasonal example Depressive side effects likely amid a specific seasons

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Mood Disorders: Additional Facts and Statistics Worldwide Lifetime Prevalence 16.1% for Major Depression 3.6% for Dysthymia 1.3% for Bipolar Sex Differences Females will probably experience the ill effects of real wretchedness Difference in dejection vanish at age 65 Bipolar issue similarly influence guys and females Fundamentally Similar in Children and Adults Prevalence of Depression Does not Vary Across Subcultures Relation Between Anxiety and Depression Most discouraged people are restless Not every single on edge individual are discouraged

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Mood Disorders: Familial and Genetic Influences Family Studies Rate is high in relatives of probands Relatives of bipolar probands – Risk for unipolar sadness Adoption Studies Data are blended Twin Studies Concordance rates are high in indistinguishable twins Severe cases have a more grounded hereditary commitment Heritability rates are higher for females Vulnerability for unipolar or bipolar issue Appear to be acquired independently

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Mood Disorders: Neurobiological Influences Neurotransmitters Serotonin and its connection with different neurotransmitters Mood issue are identified with low levels of serotonin The "tolerant" speculation Stress-affected neuronal harm For MDD and BPD Endocrine System Elevated cortisol Sleep Disturbance Hallmark of most mind-set issue Relation amongst discouragement and rest

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Mood Disorders: Psychological Influences (Learned Helplessness) The Learned Helplessness Theory of Depression Related to absence of saw control over life occasions Lack of uplifting feedback Depressive Attributional Style Internal attributions Negative results are one\'s own particular deficiency Stable attributions Believing future pessimistic results will be one\'s shortcoming Global attribution Believing adverse occasions upset numerous life exercises All three areas add to a feeling of misery

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Mood Disorders: Psychological Influences (Cognitive Theory) Aaron T. Beck\'s Cognitive Theory of Depression Depressed people take part in intellectual blunders An inclination to translate life occasions contrarily Types of Cognitive Errors Arbitrary derivation – Overemphasize the adverse Overgeneralization – Negatives apply to all circumstances Cognitive Errors and the Depressive Cognitive Triad Think adversely around oneself Think adversely about the world Think adversely about the future

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Beck Triad

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Mood Disorders: Social and Cultural Dimensions Age Different presentation by age Child/Adolescent – Irritability and carrying on Older grown-ups – Delusions and wellbeing concerns Class – Positive connection with destitution Gender Imbalances Females over guys Found in all disposition issue, aside from bipolar issue Gender awkwardness likely because of socialization Social Support Related to dejection Lack of bolster predicts late onset discouragement Substantial backing predicts recuperation from despondency

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Integrative Model of Mood Disorders Shared Biological Vulnerability Overactive neurobiological reaction to push Exposure to Stress Kills or harms neurons Activates hormones that influence neurotransmitter frameworks Turns on specific qualities Affects circadian rhythms Activates torpid mental vulnerabilities Contributes to feeling of wildness Fosters a feeling of weakness and sadness Deactivation Social and Interpersonal Relationships are Moderators

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Treatment of Mood Disorders: Tricyclic Medications Widely Used – Examples incorporate Tofranil, Elavil Block Reuptake Norepinephrine and Other Neurotransmitters Takes 2 to 8 Weeks for the Effects to be Known Negative Side Effects Are Common May be Lethal in Excessive Doses

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Treatment of Mood Disorders: Selective Serotonergic Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Specifically Block Reuptake of Serotonin Fluoxetine (Prozac) is the most prominent SSRI SSRIs Pose No Unique Risk of Suicide or Violence Negative Side Effects Are Common

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Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Lithium Is a Common Salt Primary medication of decision for bipolar issue Side Effects May Be Severe Dosage must be deliberately observed Valproic Acid - Anticonvulsant Works in Li non-responders Other AC meds Topiromate Lamotragine Tegretol

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Treatment of Mood Disorders: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ECT Involves applying brief electrical current to the cerebrum Results in impermanent seizures Usually 6 to 10 medicines are required ECT Is Effective for Cases of Severe Depression Side Effects Are Few and Include Short-Term Memory Loss Unclear Why ECT Works – May start up generation on neuro-defensive substances Relapse Following ECT Is Common

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Psychological Treatment of Mood Disorders Cognitive Therapy Addresses subjective mistakes in speculation Also incorporates behavioral segments Behavioral Activation – Operant molding Involves expanded contact with fortifying occasions Interpersonal Psychotherapy Focuses on risky interpersonal connections Outcomes with Psychological Treatments Are equivalent to meds

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Summary of Mood Disorders All Mood Disorders Share Gross deviations in state of mind Unipolar or bipolar deviations in mind-set Common natural and mental helplessness Occur in Children, Adults, and the Elderly Onset, Maintenance, and Treatment are influenced by Stress Social Support Suicide Is an Increasing Problem Not Unique to Mood Disorders Medications and Psychotherapy Produce Similar Results Relapse Rates for Mood Disorders Are High

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